# 8th Class Mathematics Reasoning and Aptitude Reasoning and Aptitude

Reasoning and Aptitude

Category : 8th Class

Reasoning and Aptitude

Learning process is dependent on ones ability to think logically and reason quickly and effectively. So Reasoning and logic skills are an important part in our progress as these skills are very useful in our day to day lives. In this chapter, we will learn various problems related to reasoning and aptitude.

Problems Based on Blood Relations

The efficiency in doing the problems of blood relations depends upon the knowledge of the blood relations. Some of the important relations are given below,

Relations of Paternal Side

•            Father's father$\to$Grandfather
•            Father's mother$\to$Grandmother
•            Father's brother$\to$Uncle
•            Father's sister$\to$Aunt
•            Children of uncle$\to$Cousin
•            Wife of uncle$\to$Aunt
•                Children of aunt$\to$Cousin
•            Husband of aunt$\to$Uncle

Relations of Maternal Side

•             Mother's father $\to$Maternal grandfather
•             Mother's mother$\to$Maternal grandmother
•             Mother's brother$\to$Maternal uncle
•             Mother's sister$\to$Aunt
•             Children of maternal uncle$\to$Cousin
•             Wife of maternal uncle$\to$Maternal aunt

Note:

i.   My mother's or father's son is my Brother

ii.  My mother's or father's daughter is my Sister.

iii. My mother's or father's father is my Grandfather.

iv. My mother's or father's sister is my Aunt.

•               Example:

How is Hema's mother's mother's daughter - in law's daughter related to Hema?

(a) Sister                                                            (b) Mother

(c) Cousin                                                          (d) Aunt

(e) None of these

Explanation: Hema's mother's mother$\to$Hema's (Maternal) grandmother

Hema's Grandmother's Daughter"" in - law$\to$Hema's (Maternal) Aunt

Hema's Aunt's daughter$\to$Hema's Cousin

•               Example:

Pointing towards a lady in a photograph, a girl said, "She is the sister of my mother's husband?. How is the girl related .to the lady?

(a) Daughter                                                       (b) Niece

(c) Sister                                                                (d) Daughter or niece

(e) None of these

Explanation: My Mother's husband$\to$My Father

My Father's sister$\to$My Aunt

So the girl is niece of the lady.

Problems Based on Input-Output

Direction for example:

Given an input line the machine arranges the words and numbers step by step in a systematic manner as illustrated below:

Input:    subsidy 76 48 follow 35 next 63 must

Step I:   35 subsidy 76 48 follow next 603 must

Step II:  35 subsidy 48 76 follow next 63 must

Step III: 35 subsidy 48 next 76 follow 63 must

Step IV: 35 subsidy 48 next 63 76 follow must

Step V:  35 subsidy 48 next 63 must 76 follow

Output in Step V is the final output and Step VI is the last step. As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input.

I.            If the second step of an input is "21 white direct 72 status front 37 69", how many more steps are required to complete the arrangement?

(a) Three                                                               (b) Four

(c) Five                                                                   (d) Six

(e) None of these

II.            What will be the third step for the input "17 85 pearls garland 67 93 restriction judgement"'?

(a) 17 restriction 67 pearls garland 85 93 judgement

(b) 17 restriction 67 pearls 93 garland 85 judgement

(c) 17 restriction 85 pearls 67 garland 93 judgement

(d) 17 restriction 67 pearls 85 garland 93 judgement

(e) None of these

III.            If the fourth step of an input is "35 wealth 52 task 72 57 jogging playground" what will definitely be the first step?

(a) task wealth 35 52 57 jogging 72 playground

(b) wealth task 35 52 57 jogging 72 playground

(c) wealth task 35 52 jogging 57 72 playground

(d) cannot be determined

(e) None of these

IV.            If the second step of an input is "26 shop finance 48 game music 63 37"; what will be the fifth step?

(a) 26 shop 37 music 48 finance game 63

(b) 26 shop 37 music finance 48 game 63

(c) 26 shop 37 music 48 game finance 63

(d) There is no fifth step

(e) None of these

V.            How many steps are requires to complete the arrangement for the input ?56 punish 48 find design 23 lavish 36??

(a) Seven                                                              (b) Five

(c) Four                                                                  (d) Eight

(e) None of these

Solutions For I to V:

The given problem is a miscellaneous type of input - output problem based on arrangement of words and numbers.

The input is:       subsidy 76         48    follow   35   next    63    must

The rule here is: In step 1: smallest number (i.e. 35) goes to first place and in second step the word starting with the last letter of alphabetical order (subsidy) goes to second place, but here subsidy is already at second place so the second smallest number (i.e. 48 goes to third place in second step) and continuing in the same manner we get the final step. Now all the problems can be solved easily.

I.                Step II:  "21 white direct 72 status front 37 69", as in step I the smallest number- goes to first place and in step II, the word starting with last letter in alphabetical order goes to second place, then again in step III, the second smallest number should go to the third place and so on:

Step III:  "21 white 37 direct 72 status front 69"

Step IV:  "21 white 37 status direct 72 front 69"

Step V:   "21 white 37 status 69 direct 72 front"

Step VI:  "21 white 37 status 69 front direct 72"

Step VII: "21 white 37 status 69 front 72 direct" (Which is the last step)

Hence 5 more steps are needed.

Hence [C]

II.                   Input:    "17 85 pearls garland 67 93 restriction judgement"

Step I:   "17 restriction 85 pearls garland 67 93 judgement"

Step II:  "17 restriction 67 85 pearls garland 93 judgement"

Step III: "17 restriction 67 pearls 85 garland 93 judgement"

Hence [D]

III.                  There might be more than 1 possibility for the Input so cannot be determined.

Hence [D]

IV.                   Step II:  "26 shop finance 48 game music 63 37"

Step III: "26 shop 37 finance 48 game music 63"

Step IV: "26 shop 37 music finance 48 game 63"

Step V:  "26 shop 37 music 48 finance game 63"

Hence [A]

V.                  Input:    "56 punish 48 find design 23 lavish 36"

Step I:   "23 56 punish 48 find design lavish 36"

Step II:  "23 punish 56 48 find design lavish 36"

Step III: "23 punish 36 56 48 find design lavish"

Step IV: "23 punish 36 lavish 56 48 find design"

Step V:  "23 punish 36 lavish 48 56 find design"

Step VI: "23 punish 36 lavish 48 find 56 design"

Hence [E]

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