Classification of Computers

Category : 9th Class

*   Classification of Computers  

 

 

*  Micro Computers

Micro Computer is a computer whose CPU (Central Processing Unit) is a microprocessor. All the components of a microprocessor are on a single integrated circuit chip. Micro computer can be categorized I as the desktop, programmable and workstation. The microprocessor based computers are called third generation computers. They are the backbone of the modern computer era. The first and second generation computers are based on vacuum tubes and bipolar junction transistors. In the early 1970s, minicomputers carried the work, based on integrated circuits but too large to be called microcomputers. In 1974, Intel released the Intel 8080. It was the first usable microprocessor. In 1980s microcomputer began to slowly edge out. (See Figure. 9.1.1)                                                                                 

 

 

 

* Mini Computers

Minicomputers were introduced in early 1960s. They were faster than micro computers. They were cheap and small. Basically these computers were mainly multiuser systems, where many users work on the systems. Generally these types of computers had larger memories and greater storage capacity. Initial minicomputers were 8 bit and 12 bit machines. In late 1970s almost all minicomputers were 16 bit machines. They had large instruction set and address field. These kinds of computers have efficient Storage for handling of text, in comparison to lower bit machines. Due to more efficient processor, speed and memory size, minicomputer was used in variety of applications and could support business applications along with the scientific applications. It was also used for various stand alone or dedicated applications. Minicomputer was a multi - user system which means more than one user could use this system simultaneously. (See Figure. 9.1.2)  

 

 

* Mainframe Computers

Mainframe computers are large and expensive machines. The word length of mainframe computers may be 48.60 or   64 bits, memory capacity being in some megabytes and storage capacity in some terabytes. Generally they handle huge volumes of information and data. In terms of speed, they are having significant processing capacity. More than hundred users can use mainframe at a time. The ICL39 and IBM 3090/4300 are the few examples of mainframe computers. They are used in research organizations, large industries, airlines reservation where a large database has to be maintained. (See Figure. 9.1.3)  

 

 

 

*  Super Computers

Super Computers are the fastest computer in current era. The processing capabilities of super computer lies in the range of GIPS2, word length 64-128 or may be in 256 or so. The memory capacity of super computer is in some gigabytes or in terabytes. The storage capacity of this type of computer is in pixabytes. (See Figure. 9.1.4)  

 

 

The parallel procession of super computer is very fast because it contains number of CPU that operates parallel. Supercomputers have limited use and limited market because they are very costly. They are used at some research centers and government agencies involving sophisticated scientific and engineering tasks.  

 

* Super computers are used for the following: 

  • Weapons research and development
  • Nuclear and plasma physics
  • Rocket research and development
  • Atomic research
  • Aerodynamics    

 

 

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 Given below the two statements. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

Statement A: The first usable microprocessor was invented in 1974.

Statement B: In late 1970s almost all minicomputers were 16 bit machines.

(A) Statement A is correct

(B) Statement B is correct

(C) Both statement A and B are correct

(D) Neither statement A nor statement B is correct  

 

Answer: (A)

Explanation 

Correct Option:

(C) Both statements are correct.

Incorrect Options:

Rest of the options is incorrect.    

 

 

 In late 1970s almost all minicomputers were .......... bit machines they had large instruction set and address field.

(A) 8                                                                     

(B) 12

(C) 16                                                                   

(D) 24

(E) None of these  

 

Answer: (C)  

Explanation

Correct Option:

(C) In late 1970s almost all minicomputers were 16 bit machines. Incorrect Options: Rest of the options is incorrect.  

 

 

  Mainframe computers are large and expensive machines. The word length of mainframe computers is .............

(A) 48, 60 and 64 bits                                     

(B) 48, 68 bits

(C) 64 bits                                           

(D) 3,000 bits

(E) None of these  

 

Answer: (A)

Explanation  

Correct Option:

(A) The word length of mainframe computers may be 48, 60 or 64 bits.

Incorrect Options:

Rest of the options is incorrect.  



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