9th Class Computers Networking Briefing on Internet and Networking

Briefing on Internet and Networking

Category : 9th Class

Briefing on Internet and Networking

 

Introduction

In the world of Information Technology, some set of rules are defined and these are known as protocols. Basically the set of protocols enables two systems to communicate and transfer data on the network. Any electronic device which is having a capability of sending and receiving data is a system. Protocols are generally implemented by software, hardware or a combination of the two.

 

The information which identifies the protocols are the following:

 

v  To identify the corrupt messages, error checking is to be used.    

v  While receiving messages, it generally indicates the receiving devices.

v  While sending messages, it indicates the sending devices.

v  To compress the data transmitted through the network, the method data compression is used.

 

The following table lists some important networking protocols:

 

Network Protocol

NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI) is the fastest protocol and does not require any configuration to implement. NetBEUI is simple to use.

 

AppleTalk is a routable protocol and is mainly used to communicate with Macintosh computers on the network.

 

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is also a routable protocol. TCP/IP is supported by most of the OS. It is more reliable than other protocols.

 

NWLink is used in Novell NetWare networks. This protocol is easy to install and also a routable protocol. The NWLink protocol is faster than TCP/IP but slower than the NetBEUI.

 

Internet

The Internet goes back to early 1960's. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), first proposed a global network of computers in 1962 and moved forward to the DARPA (defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) in late 1962 to head the work for its development.

In old days Internet was known as ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). It was started online in 1969 under a contract led by the renamed ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), which initially connected four major computers at universities in the southwestern US UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), Stanford Research Institute, UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara) and the University of Utah). Internet is the best example of WAN (Wide Area Network). A WAN is one of the computer networks which was established on a large geographical area. While connecting the Internet with your computer you need modem. Basically modem is one of the most important parts for using Internet services. This works as a key because it receives the packet of data or signals through the service provider and thus after receiving it, it allows user to use the packet of data for surfing. Without modem surfing is unable to proceed.

 

The following are the advantages of the Internet:

 

Email

Using Internet you can send any information, greeting and any type of file, such as picture to any location of the world.

 

Ticket booking

Using Internet you can book your railway ticket, air ticket and cinema ticket. You do not need to go any where just connect your computer with the Internet.

 

Chatting

Using Internet you can chat with your friend in live environment. There are various chatting tools available in market, such as Google Talk.

 

Banking

Using Internet you can check the status of your bank account. You can also transfer money from one account to other account.

 

Searching

Is one of the important features through which we are able to grasp knowledge of any thing through any of the search engine. GOOGLE is one of the common search engines through which we can capture any information regarding any topic, organization and many other things can be learnt through this.

 

Intranet

Network connections between two offices and branches are the good example of Intranet. It plays an important role in today's life for those who are sharing data from one of the main branches to its sub branch. It is also used in playing game on LAN in which all the systems are connected to one of the system which is main among them. This feature is basically used in LAN (Local Area Network).

 

Commonly Asked Question?

 

 

 

  1. The set of protocols enables two systems to communicate and transfer data on The network. Which one of the following protocols is used in Novell NetWare networks?

(a) AppleTalk                                                     (b) NWLink

(c) NetBEUI                                                       (d) All of these

(e) None of these

Answer (b)

  1. The NWLink protocol is faster than TCP/IP but slower than the NetBEUI. Which one of the following protocols is used to communicate with Macintosh computers?

(a) AppleTalk                                                     (b) NWLink

(c) NetBEUI                                                       (d) All of these

(e) None of these

Answer (a)

 

  1. In old days Internet was known as ARPANET. What is the correct full form of ARPANET?

(a) Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

(b) Area Research Projects Agency Network

(c) Advanced Research Projects Area Network

(d) Advanced Research Network Protocol

(e) None of these

Answer (a)

 

Network Topologies

Network topology refers to the way a computer network is laid out, either physically or logically. It defines the way in which network devices are organized geometrically.

 

The following are the types of topologies:

 

1. Mesh topology                  2.  Star topology                   3. Bus topology                    4.  Ring topology

 

Mesh Topology

In mesh topology each node has a dedicated point-to-point link to every other device. The main advantage of a mesh topology is reliability. It provides more security because if any node fails, it does not affect the entire network. The disadvantage of mesh topology is that it is very costly because mesh is related to the amount of cabling and the number of I/O ports required. It is also very complex structure to design. The following figure shows a network that is based on mesh topology:

 

 

Star Topology

In this topology each node is directly connected with hub. Thus the devices in the network are not directly linked to each other. The main advantage of star topology is that if any node fails, it does not affect the entire network. It's also less expensive than mesh, and hence easy to configure and maintain. The following figure shows a network that is based on star topology:

 

 

Bus Topology

In this topology all nodes are connected together to the parallel cable by drop lines and taps/T-connectors. The cable is arranged in a straight line and each node connects to the cable with a T-connector.

 

 

The advantages of bus topology are the following:

 

v  Low cost because it requires less cable.

v  Easy to install.

 

It is difficult to reconfigure. It has parallel network cable. If the cable breaks, then entire network fails down. The following figure shows a network that is based on bus topology:

 

 

 

Ring Topology

In this topology all computers are connected in a ring shape. In this topology each node has an input and an output connection. It contains wiring that allows information to pass from one device to another in a circle or ring. The main advantages of ring topology, it is easy to install and provides good signal quality.

 

 

 

Saving your Favorite Sites

All the Browsers, such as Microsoft Edge and Google Chrome provide the facility to. save your favorite website.

 

To save your favorite sites through Microsoft Edge you need to perform the following steps:

 

v  Open the Microsoft Edge

v  Type the website address in relevant box.

v  Press enter to open your favorite website.

v  Select Favorite  Add to Favorite to open Add a Favorite dialog box.

v  Type the name in Name text box and click OK.

 

Reading E-mail

E-mail (Electronic mail) is a digital correspondence that provides the facility to send and receive text messages, picture files and any other file to and from anyone with an e-mail address. E-mail is fast, easy and inexpensive. Email is a formal conversation. It should be point to point and well written.

 

In current market there are many service providers who provide free e-mail services on the Internet, such as www.gmail.com, www.yahoo.com, www.hotmail.com and www.msn.com. The first part of the address is a user name. The second part or domain name defines the Internet provider where the mail is sent. The two parts are separated by an @ sign (pronounced as "at the rate"). The domain name is followed by an extension that indicates the type of organization to which the network belongs.

 

To read new e-mail:

 

v  Open the website and login in your site.

v  Check for new messages. When new mail arrives, you will hear a sound, get a message and/or see a little envelope in your system tray.

v  Your mail program collects all the messages on your mail server and displays them in your Inbox.

v  To read a message, double-click it.

 

To print e-mail:

 

v  Open the mail by double-click.

v  Select File Print to open Print dialog box.

v  Click Print.

 

To save an e-mail to disk:

 

v  Open the mail by double-click.

v  Select File Save or Save As to open the Save As dialog box.

v  Type the name in File name text box.

v  Click Save.

 

Commonly Asked Question?

 

         

  1. Network topology refers to the way a computer network is laid out, either physically or logically. Which of the following are the types of Network topology?

(a) Star                                                              (b) Bus

(c) Ring                                                             (d) All of these

(e) None of these

Answer (d)

 

  1. In ______ topology all nodes are connected together to the parallel cable.

(a) Star                                                              (b) Bus

(c) Ring                                                              (d) All of these

(e) None of these

Answer (b)



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