9th Class English Comprehension (Prose and Poetry) Comprehension Based on General Topics

Comprehension Based on General Topics

Category : 9th Class

*         Comprehension

Introduction: Comprehension is an important segment that tests the ability of an individual to understand the language, his knowledge of words and how nicely can an examinee understand the given passage. This part is in fact very easy but many fail to fix it since they fail to follow the rules defined to approach it.  

 

*         Comprehension Based on General Topics  

 

 

 

 

*            Passage - 1

The outer portion of a woody stem or root is called bark. What does bark do for the tree? One of the main functions is to protect the inner, more delicate parts. It not only keeps them from drying out, but also guards them against outside injuries of various types. The thick barks of some redwood trees in America show scars as a result of fires near the ground, but the inner portions of the trees show no signs of injury. The process, by which bark is formed, may go on year after year. In the very young branch of a maple, for example, there is no rough bark; the shoot is nearly smooth. As the twig forms more wood and grows in size, the outer parts may split open. The injury caused in this way is healed from the inside. Some of the outer portions become dry and die. The dead broken portions give the bark a rough look. Some of the dry pieces are broken off as the twig grows larger and older. Man finds the bark of many trees very useful. Commercial cork is obtained almost entirely from the cork oak tree. The bark of the hemlock tree is used in the tanning of leather. The spice we know as cinnamon is the bark of a tree which grows in India and Malaya. Quinine is obtained from the bark of the cinchona tree. Extracts from the bark of other trees are used for flavoring, and the bark of the roots and branches of many trees, is used in medicine.  

 

Read the passage carefully and tick the correct answers  

 

  The process of formation of the bark:

(a) Stops with the ageing of the tree      

(b) Continues with the growth of the tree

(c) Depends on the age of the tree         

(d) Continues year after year

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (d)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'The process, by which bark is formed, may go on year after year' indicates that the correct answer should be (d) Continues year after year.  

 

 

  The injury caused due to split opening of the outer parts in a maple tree:

(a) Dries up the tree                                      

(b) Heals from inside     

(c) Cause the tree to die                              

(d) Gives the bar ka rough look

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (b)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'The injury caused in this way is healed from the inside' refers to the answer. The question demands the aftermath of the injury caused due to opening of the outer parts which refers to the previous line in the passage 'As the twig forms more wood and grows in size, the outer parts may split open/ The answer demands you to read both the lines together.  

 

 

  The bark of a tree used for tanning of leather

(a) Cork oak                                                       

(b) Maple

(c) Hemlock                                                       

(d) Cinchona

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (c)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'The bark of the hemlock tree is used in the tanning of leather' gives the clue to the answer.    

 

 

 A few dry pieces of bark break off because

(a) Twigs become older                                

(b) Twigs become rough

(c) Twigs split open                                        

(d) Twigs grows in size

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (a)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'Some of the dry pieces are broken off as the twig grows larger and older' gives the clue to the answer. But the line just previous to that 'The dead, broken portions give the bark a rough look' is related to the subsequent line and so you need to read both the sentences together to get the correct answer.    

 

*            Passage - 2

The World Health Organization estimates that about two million people die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution, while many more suffer from breathing ailments, heart disease, lung infections and even cancer. Fine particles or microscopic dust from coal or wood fires and unfiltered diesel engines are rated as one of the most lethal forms or air pollution caused by industry, transport, household heating, cooking and ageing coal or oil-fired power stations. There are four reasons of air pollution are - emissions from vehicles, thermal power plants, industries and refineries. The problem of indoor air pollution in rural areas and urban slums has increased. CNG is not without an environmental drawback says a new Central Pollution Control Board study on January 05, 2011. The study says burning CNG has the highest rates of potentially hazardous carbonyl emissions. The study also made a case for regulating CNG and other fuels for methane emissions. Methane, a greenhouse gas, is a key contributor to climate change. Among the study's finds were that retrofitted CNG car engines emit 30% more methane than original CNG engines. Almost all CNG car engines in India are retrofitted.

Studies conducted in various parts of the world have revealed a strong link between type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and continuous exposure to ultra fine particulate matter present in the air. Particulate matter in the air which is very fine and is less than 2.5 microns in size is called PM 2.5 and has been known to cause diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

 

Read the passage carefully and tick the correct answers:  

 

  One of the lethal forms of air pollution is:

(a) Smoke of diesel engines                                       

(b) Fine particles from gases                

(c) Emissions from thermal power plants             

(d) Microscopic dust from wood fire

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (d)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'Fine particles or microscopic dust from ......or oil-fired power stations? indicates the answer to the question.  

 

 

  What has increased in the slum areas of towns?

(a) Outdoor air pollution                              

(b) Indoor air pollution

(c) Household heating                                  

(d) Cooking and ageing coal stations

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (b)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'The problem of indoor air pollution in rural areas and urban slums has increased' gives the answer to the question.  

 

 

  A gas which is a key contributor to climate change:

(a) CNG                                                               

(b) Methane                     

(c) PM2.5                                                            

(d) Carbonyl emissions

(e) None of these                  

 

Answer: (b)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'Methane, a greenhouse gas, is a key contributor to climate change' states the answer.  

 

 

  The line 'Almost all CNG car engines in India are retrofitted' means:

(a) To make the CNG car engines by self

(b) To provide a new engine to the already fitted CNG engine

(c) To adjust the CNG engine according to need

(d) To provide a machine with new part to the CNG car engine

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (d)

Explanation:

The meaning of the word 'retrofit' is to put a new piece of equipment into a machine that did not have it when it was built; to provide a machine with a new part, etc; (Oxford Advanced Learner's  Dictionary). Therefore, the correct option will be (d).  

 

*            Passage -3

 

In 1796, Edward Jenner, an English doctor discovered the first vaccine to prevent smallpox. The story of the discovery of this vaccine is very interesting. Many a time milkmaids would come to Jenner. They would often say to him that they would not get smallpox as they had cowpox. One day a milkmaid came to Jenner. She had an attack of cowpox, a milder disease than smallpox. Some small sores had appeared on the milkmaid's body and pus-like liquid was coming out of the sores. Jenner collected the liquid in a needle and injected it into another patient who was suffering from smallpox. To his surprise, the patient showed signs of cowpox. Jenner wanted to know if the patient could be free from smallpox all his life. He wanted to confirm this through a test. He again injected the germs of smallpox into the patient, although it was very risky. But nothing happened to the patient. It was a pleasing result in Jenner's life. Now it was confirmed that the persons who once suffered from cowpox, became free from smallpox. This experiment led to the invention of anti-smallpox vaccine. Once a child is vaccinated, he becomes free from smallpox. This vaccine lad to the total removal of smallpox from the earth and the development of vaccines for several other diseases, such as tuberculosis, cholera, plague, tetanus, typhoid, etc. today, a number of children and adults are vaccinated to protect them from these diseases.

 

Read the passage carefully and tick the correct answers  

 

  Jenner undertook the risk of:

(a) Re-injecting the germs of smallpox

(b) Injecting the pus-like liquid on to the milkmaid's body

(c) Collecting the liquid and injecting it on another patient

(d) Injecting another patient with the milkmaid's cowpox germs

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (a)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'He again injected the germs of smallpox into the patient, although it was very risky' refers to the answer to the question.  

 

 

  The disease of smallpox causes in the body:

(a) Pus                                                                 

(b) Sores                             

(c) Itching                                                           

(d) Aching

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (b)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'Some small sores had appeared on the milkmaid's body and pus-like liquid was coming out of the sores' gives clue to the answer.  

 

 

  What was the advantage of cowpox over smallpox?

(a) A person can take a vaccine to spurn cowpox

(b) Cowpox is milder than smallpox

(c) A person who had cowpox will have smallpox

(d) Once a person had suffered from cowpox will never have smallpox

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (d)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'Now it was confirmed that the person who once suffered from cowpox, became free from smallpox' refers to the answer to the question.  

 

 

  The anti-smallpox vaccine has eradicated:

(a) Smallpox from the earth

(b) Smallpox as well as cowpox

(c) Various diseases like tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, etc.

(d) Smallpox and encouraged development of other vaccine for other diseases

(e) None of these  

 

Answer: (d)

Explanation:

The line in the passage 'The vaccine led to the total removal of smallpox from the earth.... Protect from these diseases' hints to the option (d) as the correct answer to the question.    



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