9th Class English Language Conventions

Language Conventions

Category : 9th Class

 

LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS

 

Learning Objectives

 

  • Cloze Test
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Contextual Passage
  • Passage Completion and Error Detection

 

Comprehension

 

To comprehend means 'to understand and grasp'. Comprehension is an important segment that tests the ability fan individual to understand the language, his knowledge of vocabulary & grammar and how nicely can an examinee understand the given passage.

 

Trend of Tests

 

(i) Cloze Test

(ii) Reading Comprehension

(iii) Contextual Passage

(iv) Passage Completion and Error Detection

 

Cloze Test

 

A cloze test is an assessment of an examinee's comprehension abilities which includes a piece of text, from which a number of words has been removed. The student is required to insert missing words according to the context.

 

How to do the cloze test

·        Read the passage carefully to get a general idea.

·        Read again, this time a little slowly, to know the details.

·        Identify the optional words to fill in the gaps.

·        Pay special attention to the grammar around the words in each gap.

 

Example:

 

Direction: For Q. 1-4: Complete the passage by selecting the most suitable option from the list for the corresponding gap.

After an absence of thirty years, I decided to visit my old school again. I had___ (1) ____to find changes, but not a completely different building. As I walked up____ (2) ______school drive, I ___ (3) for a moment if I had come to the___ (4) ____address.

 

(a) known                      (b) expected

(c) hoped                      (d) imagined

(e) None of these

Answer: (b)

 

(a) our                             (b) my

(c) the                              (d) a

(e) None of these

Answer: (c)

 

 

 

(a) wondered                              (b) wonder

(c) wounded                  (d) wondering

(e) None of these

Answer (a)

 

(a) school                      (b) actual

(c) right                                      (d) exact

(e) None of these

Answer (c)

 

Reading Comprehension

 

Reading comprehension implies understanding the meaning of a given article or a short passage. Comprehension tests are meant for testing the understanding level and capacity of the students. Students are required to read carefully and answer the questions. Students need to have a complete understanding of the passage before attempting to answer the questions.

 

 

 

Tips for answering

·        Read the passage carefully to get the general idea.

·        Understand the context and the situation of the passage.

·        Find out to which subject or discipline is the passage related to.

·        Study the questions thoroughly. Turn and read again the relevant portion in the passage.

·        Use complete sentence.

 

Example:

Read the passage carefully and tick the correct answers.

 

The world has changed since the first computer was introduced. However, only in recent years, in an astonishingly accelerated way, computer technology has become more and more complex and multifunctional within our society. In the beginning, the computer was a huge monster, occupying an entire room. Nowadays, the more efficient a computer gets the smaller it becomes. Business needs powerful computers to save their client and customer data. So, they have to use computers to sell more and in a quick way, making or keeping people very satisfied. It would not be possible if they did not have computers. Schools and universities also use computers to assist students and for research. The government would be slower in serving citizens without computers, because they provide storage tor citizen's data and enable the processing of their demands. More than ever Health assistance has been integrating technology into its treatment and therapy. Services, entertainment, and many activities worldwide are using computer technology to improve themselves. Nevertheless, the chief aim of the computer technology industry is the individual. Personal users must be conquered, because they return higher revenues and take the bigger part, and also hold the biggest demand for electronics That is why Microsoft, Google and Apple are millionaires; aiming to grasp individuals firmly, they grant people access to the World Wide Web, and not only this, they seduce people in way that young and old alike cannot escape. It is for certain that people are addicted to computers and they cannot live without them.

 

 

  1. The size of the computer in the earlier days was:

(a) Compact                   (b) Large

(c) Small                                    (d) Huge monster

(e) None of these

Answer (d)

 

  1. The prime aim of computer technology industry is to hit:

(a) Personal users            (b) Schools and universities

(c) Business corporate      (d) Government organizations

(e) None of these

Answer (a)

 

  1. Powerful computers are the demand of:

(a) Health sectors            (b) Business sectors

(c) Government sectors    (d) Educational institutions

(e) None of these

Answer (b)

 

  1. The word 'addicted' in the passage means:

(a) Passionate                 (b) Uncontrollable

(c) Unable to stop using   (d) Enthusiastic about using

(e) None of these

Answer (c)

 

Contextual Passage

 

The contextual passage, in PSA, is aimed to assess an examinee's different aspect of written communication that includes word spelling, grammar, synonyms, antonyms, idioms and phrases, spotting the error, sentence improvement, one word substitution etc.

 

Some Common Errors

·        No comma after introductory element

·        Unnecessary comma

·        Wrong word/mis-spelt

·        Wrong/missing prepositions 

·        Pronoun-agreement error

·        Wrong sentence fragment, etc.

Example:

 

Direction: For Q. 1-4: Read the given passage carefully and select the most suitable option from each list according to the corresponding number in the passage.

Patients suffering from kidney failure may not have to wait without end (1) to get a matching donor anymore. Doctors are now of opinion that those with mismatched (2) donors can also undergo the life-saving procedure under a novel technique involving suppression (3) of antibodies responsible for rejection of incompatible (4) organs with the help of plasma exchange and drug therapy.

 

  1. Which of the following can replace the phrase used in corresponding number?

(a) boundless                  (b) To rest for ever

(c) To stand for ever        (d) Wait eternally

(e) None of these

Answer (d)

 

  1. Which of the following can replace the word used in corresponding number?

(a) Unsuited                   (b) in appropriate

(c) Adaptable                 (d) All of these

(e) None of these

Answer (a)

 

  1. Give the correct spelling for the word in corresponding number.

(a) Suppression               (b) Suppression

(c) Suppression               (d) All of these

(e) None of these

Answer (b)

 

  1. Give the antonym for the word in corresponding number.

(a) mismatch                  (b) divergence

(c) attuned                     (d) variance

(e) None of these

Answer: (c)

 

Passage Completion and Error Detection

 

In this type, a passage is given to the student which contains grammatical errors and omissions.

The common errors that a student may find are:

 

 

 

·        Grammatical mistakes

·        Wrong word order

·        Unnecessary insertion

·        Wrong use if article

·        Wrong use of adjective/adverb/pronoun etc.

·        Omission of article/adjective /adverb/ pronoun/preposition etc. 

 

Example:

 

Direction: For Q. 1-4: In this passage some errors or parts of sentence have been left out. Complete the passage by selecting the appropriate option related to corresponding number.

They are rated as the best opening batting combination in the history of one day cricket.

But____ (1) _______, Sourav Ganguly and Sachin Tendulkar now find themselves on the _____ (2) ____ of the Indian Super League. However, Ganguly on Monday said ____that the Mumbaikar has _______(4)_____first learn the game of soccer.

 

(a) serving India together for years

(b) having served India together for years

(c) being served India together for years

(d) served India together for years

(e) None of these

Answer: (b)

 

(a) Same side                (b) Opposite side

(c) Not in any side           (d) All of these

None of these

Answer: (b)

 

(a) tongue-in-cheek          (b) serious

(c) somber                      (d) whimsical

(e) None of these

Answer (a)

 

(a) at                             (b) in

(c) and                          (d) to

(e) None of these

Answer: (d)

 

 

Other Topics

Notes - Language Conventions
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