Banking Computers Development of Computer Development of Computer

Development of Computer

Category : Banking

 

Development of Computer

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Computer is a man ?mad electronic machine that change the way we work live and play .A machine that has done all this and more ,now exits in invention is the computer the computer is a one of the most powerful innovation in human history .the electronic computer has been around for over a half century butt its ancestor abacus   has been around for 2000 years however only in the last 40 year it has changed the of lifestyle from the first wooden abacus to the latest high speed microprocessor  the computer has changed the nearly  every aspect of people lives for the better .with the use of computer people are suddenly able to perfumed a large amount of computation at dazzling speed information can be crunched ,organized and display in the blink of an eye .thing that were only dreams a few years ago are now possible due to computer.

 

 

 

Evolution of computers

 

1. Abacus: The abacus one of the earliest known computation device. It is a tool that help in calculating answer of arithmetic problems. It is simple a wooden rack holding parallel wires on which beads are strung calculation are done by manipulating the beads the abacus was enveloped China about 5000 years ago so successful that its use spread from china to many other countries

 

 

 

2. Pascal Calculator:  the first real mechanical calculating was invented by French scientist and mathematical Blaise Pascal, around 1645. the device was constructed by interlocking gears representing the number 0 to 9  it was only able to do addition and subtraction so it is called adding machine

 

 

 

3. Analytical Engine: In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard perfected the loom. Using holes punched into a series of connected cards, Jacquard was able to control the weaving  of fabrics the lacquered loom not only cut back on the around of human labor, but also Allowed for patterns to be stored now on cards and to be utilized over and we again to achieve the same product. In 1820Babbage failed to build a fully operational model of Difference or Analytical Engine. In 1842Lady Lovelace wrote Demonstration program and her contribution to binary arithmetic was later used by John Von Neumann in developing the modern computer. So she is often regarded as the "first computer programmer

 

 

 

4. Herman Hollerith and Punch Card: In 1890 the united States Census bureau asked Herman Hollerith to find a way to speed up the processing a Census Data. Herman Hollerith created punched cards that resemble today's Computer cards. He also invented the Oil Erath 80 column code and tabulating Machine.

 

 

5. First Electronic Computer (ENIAC): Howard Aiken, with his colleagues at Harvard and with some assistance from International Business machine he had built by 1942 the Mark I thee world?s first program controlled calculator  an early from of a digital computer in 1944 John Mauchley an American physicist and J. Presper Eckert and American engineer, proposed an Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC), and completed it in 1946 which is regarded as the first successful General digital computer.

 

 

6. Stored Program concept (EDSAC): According to John Von Neumann' concept, the operating instructions and data used in processing should be stored inside the computer. Whenever necessary the computer would have the capability to modify these program instructions, during their execution. This concept was incorporated into the EDSAC computer (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer), which was developed at Cambridge Universal Automatic this Computer was capable of stories is sequence of instruction the equivalent of the first computer programmer 

 

 

7. UNIVAC 1: It is the short from of universal automatic computer in 1951 it was introduced and become the first commercially available computer the Univac 1 was characteristic of the first generation of  computer

 

 

Development

Approximate Dates

Important Features

Abacus

2000-3000 B.C

Fist mechanical calculator

Pascale calculator

1645

Fist adding machine capable of counting adding and subtracting  

Jacquard?s weaving loom

1801

Utilize metal plates with punched holes to control weaving  patterns

Babbage analytical engine

1834-1871

Indented to be the first general purpose computer the engine was never constructed in Babbage?s lifetime

Herman Tabulating Machine

1887-1896

Designed a code and device to punch data into card and tabulate collected data used in automating the Census of 1980

Howard Aiken mark

1937-1944

the largest electromechanically computer ever built utilize punch paper ape to store data    

ENIAC

1943-1950

Fist electronic computing device in which program wired into a permanent panel. No significant storage capability 

Jhon Von Neumann?s Stored Program Concept

1852-1945

Developed the concept of storing program instruction and dada in the memory of the computer credited with introducing the idea of  the coding  data and instructions in binary

EDSAC

1946-1952

Fist computer capable of storing instruction and data in memory 

UNIVAC1

1951-1954

Fist computer that was commercially available and produced in quantity

 

 

 

Computer Generation

 

The history of the development of computer is often referred to in tracing the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computer's operated resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and efficient and reliable devices.

 

 

 

First Generation (1942-1955)

 

The first Generation computer were entire electronic. They used vacuum tubes to store instructions magnetic drums were used foe memory they are often enormous taking up entire room. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity generated a lot of heat which often needed expansive air -conditioning. First generation computers relied on machine language (Is and so), the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could solve only one problem at a time.

 

The UNIVAC 1, ENIAC and Mark 1 computers are examples of the first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial electronic computer. This machine was developed specially for scientific and military purposes but it was dedicated to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.

 

 

 

Second Generation (1955-1964)

 

In second generation of computers solid state transistors replaced vacuum tubes in computers. It was invented in Bell Laboratories.

The transistor was far superior than the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable. To represent data a magnetic core is used in computer. At about the same time magnetic tape and disks began to be widely used as an auxiliary storage. Magnetic disk was layered by iron oxide. Magnetic disks made possible direct access of data. As a result of these developments, a significant increase in the speed and processing capability of computers was achieved. Businessmen began to use computers in increasing numbers and new high-level programming languages also developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN.

 

 

 

Third Generation (1965-1974)

 

Further development in electronics brought further reduction in size greater reliability, speed and lower costs computer. Integrated circuits (IC) replaced the transistors, which was developed by J.S. Kilbi. This was the hallmark of the third generation of computers.

This development is known as LSI (Large Scale Integration) and it refers to the ability to compress large number of integrated circuits on a single silicon chip. There is also VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration).Another development that changed the way people use computers was time sharing. A time-shared computer allows many users, each working at a separate input/output terminal, to use it at the same time. Users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became Accessible to mass users because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. Users could use software according to their need because Software and hardware were available separately.

 

 

 

Fourth Generation (1975 - Up till now)

 

Fourth Generation computer continued to be characterized by chips that can contain increasing numbers of items. This further miniaturization of components, referred to as ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration), resulted in increased speed, greater reliability, and enormous storage capacities for current computers by using LSI technology, microprocessor was introduced. This microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. Computer of the first generation that filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from the CPU and memory to input / output controls on a single chip In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life. Everyday products such as vehicles, microwave oven and electronic games etc. began to use microprocessors more and more As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form a network, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handhold devices.

 

 

 

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond)

 

Unlike all other generation computers, present generation of computers is characterized by the use of the technique used to reduce complex programming. This technique is known as Artificial intelligence (AI). Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.

 

Generation

Characteristics

First  Generation

1. Use of vacuum tubes in circuits.

2. Use of magnetic drum as primary internal storage Medium.

3. Limited main storage capacity.

4. Slow input/output.

5 Low-level symbolic language programming.

6. Heat and maintenance problem.

Application: Payroll processing and record keeping.

Example: ENIAC IBM 650, UNIVAC 1

Second Generation

1.     Transistors at the place of vacuum Use of tubes.

2.     Use of magnetic core as primary use of transistor at the place of vacuum tubes  use of magnetic core as primary internal storage medium internal storage medium.

3.     Increased main storage capacity

4.     Faster input/output.

5.     Great reduction in size and heat generation.

6.     Increased speed and reliability.

7.     High level programming language (COBOL and FORTRAN).

Application: Batch oriented (Billing, Payroll processing

And Updating inventory files.

Example: IBM 1401, Honeywell 200, CDC 1604.

Third Generation

1. Use of 1C (Integrated circuit).

2. Use of magnetic core as primary storage medium.

3 More flexible input/output.

4. Smaller size, better performance and reliability.

5. Increased speed and better performance.

6. Extensive use of high level programming languages.

7. Emergence of minicomputers. Remote processing and time sharing through communication.

8. Availability of operating system software to control input/output.

Applications: Airline reservation system, market

Forecasting and credit card billing.

Example: IBM System / 360, NCR 395, Burroughs B6500.

Fourth Generation

1.Use of large scale integrated circuit Generation

2. Increased storage capacity and speed. Modular design and compatibility between hardware provided by different manufacturers.

3. Modular design and compatibility between hardware provided by different manufacturers.

4. Greater versatility of Input/output devices.

5.Introduction of microprocessors and microcomputers,

6. Increased use of microcomputers.

Applications: Electronic fund transfer, computer-aided instruction, home computers and mathematical modeling and simulation.

Example: IBM PC-XT (microcomputer),  Apple II, Honeywell 6080 series

 

 

 

 

Classification of computer by the purpose which they design

 

1. Special Purpose Computers: The special purpose computers are used to solve a single and dedicated type of problem. For their specialized use they are extremely efficient and economical. Example- automatic aircraft landing, computerized traffic control systems.

 

2. General Purpose Computers: The general purpose computers are flexible and versatile. They can be used to solve a variety of problems by changing the program or instructions   Example Accounting, Simulation and forecasting.

 

 

 

Classification of computer by the types -of data which hive are capable of manipulating

 

1. Digital Computer: In digital computer data is represented as discrete units or electrical pulse, which can be counted and switched. In modern digital computer binary system is used. Digital clock is its good example Due to fast speed and large storage capacity digital computers are used for business and scientific data processing.

 

2. Analog Computer: In analog computer data is represented as physical quantities. Physical quantities are best measured in a continuous fashion and thus are ideally suited for analog computation. Analog computer is a machine that works on data which is always changeable. Analog form of electricity is used by us. Speed of this kind of computers are slow. Voltmeter Thermometer and barometer are the examples of analog device. Analog computers are most often used for scientific and engineering purposes.

 

3. Hybrid Computer: Hybrid computer has combined features of both digital and analog computers with the input and output in analog form and the processing in digital form. This involves analog to digital converter (ADC) at the input end and digital to analog converter (DAC) at the output end.

 

A

 

D

Input Units\[\to \]D

CPU

A\[\to \]Output Units

C

 

C

 

 

 

Classification of computers on the basis of Price, Size and Capabilities

 

1. Supercomputers: Supercomputers are the most powerful computers as of now. These computers are large in size and memory compared to all other computers. They work with multi-processing and parallel processing facilities. At present, especially in computing speed, these are very fast so these are the fastest, biggest and most expansive computers. These machines are special high capacity computers used by very large organizations. They contain thousands of microprocessors. First supercomputer of world was CDC 6600 released in 1964. Super computer CRAY - 1 was developed by Cray Research Company in 1976. First super computer of India was PARAM which was developed by C-DAC in 1991. It was designed for ultra-high performance task such as creating animation, weather forecasting, nuclear energy research, encryption cracking and designing. Examples are CRAY-1 and IBM's Deep Blue.

 

 

2. Mainframe Computer: Mainframes are characterized by large internal memory storage and comprehensive range of software and peripheral equipment that might be connected. Mainframe computers are capable of great processing speeds and data storage in this computer processing capacity and speed are very fast and more than one user and work at a times multicast was a mainframe timesharing operating system which was developed at Bell Laboratories. A typical super computer the CRAY-1 costs about $20 million these computers are used in scientific and business application. For example insurance companies use mainframes to process information about millions of policy holders. Examples are IBM - 370, IBM - S/390, DEC VAX ? 8800 and UNIVAC ? 1110

 

 

3. Mini Computer: Minicomputers are smaller in size, faster, cost lower than mainframes and higher than Personal Computer. They are designed for real time dedicated application- Minicomputer converts into super minicomputer by using the 80386 Super chip. Super minicomputer processes 5 lac process per second. These computers are used in company passenger reservation and research etc. Examples are IBM - 17, DEC PDP 11, HP- 9000, AS 400 and BULL HN- DPX2.

 

 

4. Microcomputer Microcomputers are computers whose central processing unit consists of a microprocessor. A microprocessor is and integrated circuit. Microcomputers are the as powerful, yet the most widely used and fastest growing type of computers. There are four types of microcomputer: desktop, notebook, tablet PC and handheld computers Desktop computers are small enough to fit on top of or alongside a desk yet are too big to carry around. Notebook computers, also known as laptop computers, are portable, lightweight, and fit into most briefcases. A tablet PC is a type of notebook computer that accepts your handwriting. This input is digitized and converted to standard text that can be further processed by programs such as a word processor. Handheld computers are the smallest and are designed to fit into the palm of one hand. Also known as palm computers Hardware for a microcomputer system consists of a variety of different devices such as system unit, input/output, secondary storage, and communication. The main media of input into a microcomputers are a keyboard and a mouse and output is the monitor. The processing speed of microcomputer is 1 lac process per second. These computers are used for business application, entertainment, at home and the field of medicine. Examples are APPLE MAC, I Mac, IBM PS/2, IBM compatible and PS 386,486.

 

 

5. Personal Computer: A small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user it is based on the microprocessor technology that enables manufactures to put and entire CPU on one chip businesses use personal computers for word processing accounting desktop publishing and for spreadsheet and database management application. At home, the most popular use of personal computers is for playing games, email, chatting etc. Examples are Apple II, IBM PC, Lenovo and HP etc.

 

 

6. Laptop: A laptop is a personal computer designed for mobile use. It is small enough to sit on one lap and fits in to a briefcase .it integrates most of the components of a desktop computer including monitor a keyboard a pointing device (also known as track pad) speakers, and other drives. It includes   rechargeable battery, so it works anywhere. By using blue tooth and Wi-Fi we can access the Internet.

 

 

 

7. Notebook computer: An extremely lightweight personal computer it is generally thinner and smaller than laptop.

 

 

8. Workstations: Workstations are special single user computers having the same features as personal computer but have the processing speed equivalent to minicomputer or mainframe computer. A workstation Computer can be fitted on a desktop. Scientists engineers architects and graphic designers mostly use these computers. Workstation computers are Expensive and powerful computers. These have advanced processor, more RAM and storage capacity than personal computers. These are usually use as single-user application but are used as servers on computer network and Web servers as well.

 

 

9. Palmtop: A small computer that literally fits in our palm. Compared severely limited, but they are practical for Calendars. Palmtops that use a pen rather small size, most palmtop computers do not include disk drives. However, many slots in which we can insert disk drives Palmtops are also called PDAs, hand-held Development of Computer

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