Banking Marketing Aptitude Branding, Packaging and Labelling Marketing Aptitude - Branding, Packaging and Labelling

Marketing Aptitude - Branding, Packaging and Labelling

Category : Banking




Branding is the management process by which a product is branded. It is a general term covering various activities like giving a brand name to a product, designing a brand mark and enforcing it.

  • Importance of Branding
  • Brand is a perceptual entity rooted in reality which ultimately resides in the minds of consumers.
  • Branding is all about creating difference between products.
  • Branding creates mental structures that help consumers to organize their knowledge about products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making which also provides value to the firm.
  • Brand difference often relate to attributes or benefits of the product itself.
  • Marketers can apply branding virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. It is possible to brand a physical good (Maggi noodles, Lux soap) a service, (ICICIs banking service) a store, (Big bazar, West side) a person (celebrities, like Amir Khan, MS Dhoni) a place (Goa, Kerala) an organization (UNICEF) or an Idea (Family planning).
  • Functions of Branding
  • It helps in product identification and gives 'distinctiveness’ to a product.
  • Indirectly it denotes the quality or standard of a product.
  • It eliminates imitation of products.
  • It ensures legal right on the product.
  • It helps in advertising and packaging activities.
  • It helps to create and sustain brand loyalty to particular products.
  • It helps in price differentiation of products.


 Advantage of Branding


The advantages of using brand names could be easily recognized for each group   of participants   in the marketing   viz    manufacturers, consumers, distributors, as follows

  • To the Manufacturers
  • It identifies the product and distinguishes it from  other competing products. Thus, it protects the interests of the manufacturers.
  • It saves advertising cost if the brand name is popular.
  • If properly promoted, brand name creates confidence and goodwill for the products.
  • To the Consumers
  • It provides an easy way for purchase by easy identification of a product.
  • The brand name indirectly assures certain   quality   by identifying the manufacturer with the product.
  • To the Distributors
  • Widely popular brands ease the selling process and lead to large sales.
  • It helps in advertising and sales promotion programmes.
  • The distributor can easily find out the quick moving products.
  • Branding reduces price flexibility. Thus, in turn, reduces the risk in business.
  • Special selling efforts need not be undertaken. This reduces the cost of distribution and thus, the final price.


Different Terms Related to Branding


There are some important terms related to branding.

  • Brand

A brand is the identification of a product e.g., Nike, Reebok, LG, etc.

  • Types of Brand

We can classify the brand into following two broad categories

  • Manufacturer's Brands
  • National Brands the same brand used on a national level.
  • Regional Brands Brand for particular region.
  • Advertising Brands Brands stressing symbols.
  • Blanket Brands or Single Brands or Family Brands One brand name for all the products of a manufacturer, e.g., Godrej products which includes locks, refrigerator, furniture range, safes, etc.
  • Multiple Brands or Individual Brands Brand name given for each variety of product, e.g., various brand soaps of TATAs.
  • Distributor's Brands
  •          Private brand
  •          Store brand
  •          Dealer brand       
  •          House brand

            Distributor's brands stress on the identity of the retailer.

  • Brand Name

The part of a brand, which can be spoken, is called a brand name. It is the verbal component of a brand e.g., Uncle Chips, Vivel, Maggie, Safola, Maruti Suzuki, etc.


Characteristics of a Good Brand Name


At the time of choosing a brand name, various aspects require careful consideration.

The following are some of the general considerations

(i) Easy to pronounce                             

(ii) Easy to read and understand               

(iii) Appropriate for the product                

(iv) Easy to remember                

(v) Most descriptive in nature


  • Brand Awareness

It means the extent to which consumers are   familiar with the qualities or image of' a particular brand of goods or services.

  • Brand Mark

Brand mark appears in the form of a symbol, design, distinct colour scheme or lettering, e.g., the Gattu of Asian Paints, Zuzu of Vodaphone or Devil of Onida TV.

  • Brand Cover

To conquer a new market, when any company launches its new series of product by converting the old appearance of its own products, it is called brand cover.

  • Brand Loyalty

When customer buys a brand, not only because of habit but due to the likings or preference towards a particular brand, then it is known as brand loyalty.

  • Brand Equity

Brand equity should be defined in terms of marketing effects uniquely attributable to a brand. That is different outcomes result in the marketing of a product or service because of its brand compared to the results if that same product or service was not identified by that brand.

  • Trademark

Any name, symbol, figure, letter, word or mark used to identify or distinguish a product produced by a particular manufacturer, is called trademark. A trademark must be registered with a govetment patent office to assure its exclusive use by its owner.

  • Logo

A logo is a graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. It can be a drawing, image or symbol that identifies and represents a company but this does not necessarily mean, the logo has been registered as a trademark. A business logo is often used on websites, pamphlets or any type of advertising material offered by a company.






Packaging is the technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale and use. It means putting the products in suitable containers or packets such as tin, plastic jar or card board box, etc. Packaging should be such that product is protected and can be easily handled. It should be attractive and eye-catching and as far as a eco-friendly.


  • Objectives of Packaging

            Packaging must achieve a number of objectives which are as follow

  • Identify the brand
  • Convey descriptive and persuasive information,
  • Facilitate product transportation and protection.
  • Assist at home storage
  • Aid product consumption


  • Functions of Packaging

First, packaging must protect the product. It also has a promotional role which has become more important some of the important functions are                     

  • To assemble and arrange the contents in the desired form,
  • Helps to identify the contents, the brand and the maker.
  • To facilitate transporting, storing and warehouse handling.
  • To enable the display of contents.
  • To encourage repurchase.                            


Types of Packaging


On the basis of convenience, packaging is categorized as follows

  • Primary Packaging

It is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the contents.

  • Secondary Packaging

It is outside the primary packaging, perhaps used to group primary packages together.

  • Tertiary Packaging

It is used for bulk handling, ware house storage and transport shipping. The most common form is a palletised unit load that packs tightly into containers.

On the basis of nature, packaging is classified into

  • Family Packaging

The products of a particular manufacturer when packed in an identical manner is known as family packaging. The shape, colour, size, etc. of packaging will be similar for all his products.

  • Reuse Packaging

Packages that could be reused for some other purpose after the packed goods have been consumed is known as re-use packaging. This aspect increases the sales value of the product considerably.

  • Multiple Packaging

It is the practice of placing several units in one container.


Characteristics of Packaging


  • It is very important for packaging to be visually appealing to the consumer.
  • Packaging should be cost effective.
  • It should have distinctive and unique design or logo.
  • It should contain the necessary information about the utility of a product.
  • It should be convenient to handle.
  • It should be able to absorb humidity, temperature, etc.
  • It should not be fraudulent in giving any information.
  • Importance of Packaging
  • Security/safety of the product
  • Convenience in advertisement
  • Facilitate the use of product
  • Facilitate marketing as Facilitate easy storage and transportation
  • Facilitate product identification




The label can be a simple attached tag or an elaborately designed graphic that is a part of the package. It serves the purpose of indicating the contents, weight or measure, instructions for use, price, name of the producer, data of manufacturer and expiry, etc. The information on the label is essential for various reasons e.g., the date of expiry in case of medicines and date of manufacture in the case of eatables prevent the sale of products which may prove harmful.

  • Types of Labels

            There are three types of labels that are as follows

  1. Brand Label

In this type of label, only brand name is used on package of a product. This brand name is either producer's name or any word, symbol or design. e.g.. Lux, Lifebuoy, etc.

  1. Grade Label

Product classification in this label is based on standards quality. Products are classified into A, B, C or 1, 2, 3 categories based on quality.

  1. Descriptive Label

This labelling is used for the branded products that furnishes detailed information about the product attributes and quality.

  • Functions of Labelling
  • A label describes the product and specify its contents.
  • It helps in identification of the product or brand.
  • It helps in grading the products into different categories.
  • It aids in promotion of the products.
  • It provides information required by the law.




  • Manufacturer brands usually require a producer to become involved in distribution, promotion and pricing decisions.
  • Copyright is applicable in the case of books.
  • A company's ability to perform in one more way that competitors cannot or will not match is known as its competitive advantage.
  • Logos can be explanied as the visual icons that give an exceptional recognition aspect to a product.
  • A good brand can be built up by the way of consistent offering of goof services.



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