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SSC Chemistry Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles & Techniques General Organic Chemistry

General Organic Chemistry

Category : SSC

General Organic Chemistry

 

  • Wohler prepared the first organic compound urea while preparing ammonium cyanate.
  • Classification of organic compounds:

 

The existence of two or more chemical compounds with the same molecular formula but having different properties owing to different arrangement of atoms within the molecule is termed as isomerism

 

  • Hydrocarbons: All those compounds which contain just carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.
  • Functional group: The atom or group of atoms which determine the properties of a compound is known as functional group. e.g. \[-OH\] (alcohol), -CHO (aldehyde), > C = C < (alkene), \[-C\equiv C-\] (alkyne), etc.
  • Homologous Series: A series of compounds in which the same functional group substitute’s hydrogen in a carbon chain is called a homologous series, e.g. \[C{{H}_{3}}Cl\] .and \[{{C}_{2}}{{H}_{5}}Cl\] differ by a \[-C{{H}_{2}}\] unit.
  • Nomenclature: Chemists developed a set of rules, for naming organic compounds based on their structures which is known as IUPAC rules. The IUPAC name of an organic compounds consists of three parts.

Prefix - word root - Suffix

Word root: A word root indicates the nature of basic carbon skeleton.

  • In case a functional group is present, it is indicated in the name of the compound with either as a prefix or as suffix.
  • While adding the suffix to the word root the terminal 'e' of carbon chain is removed
  • If the carbon chain is unsaturated then the final 'ane' in the name of the carbon chain is substituted by 'ene' or ‘yne’ respectively for double and triple bonds.

 

Functional group

Prefix/Suffix

Functional group

Example

IUPAC Name

1. Halogen

Chloro, bromo, lodo

-Cl,-Br,-I

-Bromopropane

2. Alcohol

-ol

-OH

-Ethanol

3. Aldehyde

-al

-CHO

\[C{{H}_{3}}C{{H}_{2}}C{{H}_{2}}CHO\]

-Butanal

4. Ketone

-one

-CO

\[C{{H}_{3}}COC{{H}_{3}}\]

-Propanone

5. Carboxylic arid

-oic acid

-COOH

\[C{{H}_{3}}C{{H}_{2}}COO{{H}_{{}}}\]

-Propanoicacid

6. Amine

Ammo

\[-N{{H}_{2}}\]

\[C{{H}_{3}}C{{H}_{2}}N{{H}_{2}}\]

-Amino ethane

7. Ester

oate-

-COOR

\[C{{H}_{3}}COOC{{H}_{3}}\]

-Methyl ethanoate

8. Double bond

ene

 

\[C{{H}_{3}}-CH=C{{H}_{2}}\]

-Propene

9. Triple bond

yne

 

\[C{{H}_{3}}-C{{H}_{2}}-C\equiv CH\]

-Butyne

 

  • Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds

(i) Combustion: Carbon compound undergo combustion reaction to produce \[C{{O}_{2}}\] and \[{{H}_{2}}O\] with the evolution of heat and light \[C{{H}_{4}}+{{O}_{2}}\to C{{O}_{2}}+{{H}_{2}}O+\]heat and light

(ii) Oxidation: \[\underset{ethanol}{\mathop{C{{H}_{3}}C{{H}_{2}}OH}}\,\xrightarrow{alk.\,\,KMn{{O}_{4}}/\Delta }\underset{ethanoic\,\,acid}{\mathop{C{{H}_{3}}COOH}}\,\]

The substance which are used for oxidation are known as oxidising agent, e.g alkaline\[KMn{{O}_{4}}\], acidified\[{{K}_{2}}C{{r}_{2}}{{O}_{7}}\].

(iii) Addition reaction:

Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes undergo addition reaction in presence of catalysts e.g.

(iv) Substitution reaction: Saturated hydrocarbons give substitution reaction e.g. methane in presence of sunlight undergo chlorination.

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