Short Notes - Agriculture

Category : UPSC




  • India holds the second position in the world in agricultural production.


Salient features of agriculture in India

  1. Subsistence Agriculture: Usually the farmers, along with their family members, grow crops in their small plot of land.
  2. Pressure of Population on Agriculture The population in lndia is increasing at a high rate and this puts pressure on the agriculture sector Agriculture has to provide food and employment to large sections of the society.
  3. Dependency upon Monsoon Agriculture in India mainly depends upon monsoon, which is unreliable, uncertain and irregular
  4. Variety of Crops: India experiences both tropical and temperate climate and therefore supports the cultivation of crops suitable for both these climates.
  5. Predominance of Food Crops Farming is practised in almost every part of the country and about two thirds of the total land is being used for agricultural purposes in India.
  6. Seasonal Patterns: There are three distinct agricultural or cropping seasons in India - kharif, rabi and zaid.


  • India produces about 10% of the fruits produced in the world.
  • The country holds the first position in the world for the production of Papaya, Mangoes and Banana etc
  • India ranks sixth in the world in the production of
  • India has the biggest number of livestock in the world.

The major cocopping season observed in the Indian agriculture is Rabi, Kharif an Zaid.

Rabi Season: Lasts from October to April

  • Crops are shown in October and harvested in March and April.
  • Major crops grown, are Wheat, Barley,Mustard, Gram, Peas, Sunflower, Coriander, Onion, Potato, Oats, etc.

Kharif Season: It starts from the rain in July to October (the entire monsoon season)  

  • Crops are shown in July and harvested in October,
  • Major crops grown are, Rice, Millet, Bajra, Maize, Bean, Groundnut, Red Chills, Cotton, Soyabean, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Urad, etc.

Zaid Season:

  • It extends from March to June and major crops are Watermelon, Muskmelon, Bitter gourd, Pumpkin, Cucumber, etc.





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