Short Notes - World Climatic Types

Category : UPSC


World Climatic Types



The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate  

  • It is found between 5° and 10° north and south of the equator.
  • Dominantly found in the lowlands of the Amazon, Congo, Malaysia and East Indies.
  • The mean monthly temperature is always around 24 to 27°C.
  • There is no winter.
  • These regions are generally sparsely populated.
  • Some plantation crops are also practised like natural rubber, cocoa, etc.


The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical Marine Climates

  • It is found between 5° and 30° latitudes on either side of the equator.
  • Best developed in the Indian subcontinent, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, parts of Vietnam, South China and northern Australia.
  • Tropical Marine climate is found in Central America, West Indies, Philippines, parts of East Africa, Madagascar, Guyana coast and eastern Brazil.
  • Average temperature of warm dry summer months range between 27°C and 32°C.
  • Trees are normally deciduous.
  • Forests yields valuable timber like teak and sal.
  • Agro-crops are rice, cane sugar, jute, etc.


The Savanna or Sudan Climate

  • Found between 5°-20° latitudes on either side of the equator.
  • It is found in Llanos of Orinico valley, the campus of Brazil, Central America, Southern Zaire, etc.
  • Mean temperature in between 24°C and 27°C.
  • Rainfall in between 100 cm and 150 cm.
  • Trees are deciduous and hard.
  • Tribes like Masai and Hausa are found in this region.


The Hot Desert and Mid-latitude Desert Climates                       

  • It is located on western coasts of the continents between 15° and 30° N and S.
  • Saharan desert, Great Australian desert, Arabian desert, Iranian desert, Thar, Namib, Atacama are some of the greatest deserts of the world.
  • The hot deserts lie astride the Horse Latitude or Subtropical High Pressure Belts.
  • Bushmen of Kalahari and Bindibu or Aborigines of Australia are nomadic hunters and food gatherers.
  • Bedoium of Arabia, Tuaregs of Sahara, Gobi Mongols are some of the examples of Tribal groups.

Mediterranean climate                

  • Climate is characterized by hot, dry summer and cool, wet winter.
  • Vegetation includes   cork   oak, eucalyptus, Jarrah and Karri.           
  • Evergreen coniferous trees are pines, firs, cedars.
  • Viticulture is widely followed in the Mediterranean lands.


Temperate Continental (Steppe) Climate

  • Bordering the deserts, away from the Mediterranean regions and in the interiors of the continents are the temperate grasslands.
  • In N. America, they are known as Prairies.
  • In Argentina and Urugway Pampas.
  • In South Africa - Veld
  • In Hungary - Pustaz.
  • Summers are very warm and winters are very cold.
  • Average rainfall range between 10 to 30 inches.


The China type Climate

  • This type of climate is found on the eastern margins of continents in warm temperate latitudes just outside the tropics.
  • Rainfall is more than moderate, anything from 25 inches to 60 inches.
  • Vegetation includes pines, cypresses, bamboo, palms.


The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Laurentian type)

  • The cool temperate Eastern Margin Climate feature both the maritime and continental climates.
  • It is found in Canada, north east USA, Siberia, North China, Mancharia, Korea and northern Japan.
  • Important crops includes soyabeans, groundnuts, sesame, rapeseeds, tung oil and mulberry.


The Arctic or Polar Climate

  • Polar type climate and vegetation is found mainly north of the Arctic circle in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Winters are long and very severe, summers are cool and brief. Main vegetation includes mosses, lichens and sedges.
  • In Green land, northern Canada and Alaska there is Eskimos.
  • In the Eurasian tundra there are other nomadic tribes such as the Lapps of northern Finland and Scandinavia, the Samoyeds of Siberia, Yakuts, Koryaks and Chukchi of north-eastern Asia.


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