World Climatic Types
The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate
- It is found between 5° and 10° north and south of the equator.
- Dominantly found in the lowlands of the Amazon, Congo, Malaysia and East Indies.
- The mean monthly temperature is always around 24 to 27°C.
- There is no winter.
- These regions are generally sparsely populated.
- Some plantation crops are also practised like natural rubber, cocoa, etc.
The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical Marine Climates
- It is found between 5° and 30° latitudes on either side of the equator.
- Best developed in the Indian subcontinent, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, parts of Vietnam, South China and northern Australia.
- Tropical Marine climate is found in Central America, West Indies, Philippines, parts of East Africa, Madagascar, Guyana coast and eastern Brazil.
- Average temperature of warm dry summer months range between 27°C and 32°C.
- Trees are normally deciduous.
- Forests yields valuable timber like teak and sal.
- Agro-crops are rice, cane sugar, jute, etc.
The Savanna or Sudan Climate
- Found between 5°-20° latitudes on either side of the equator.
- It is found in Llanos of Orinico valley, the campus of Brazil, Central America, Southern Zaire, etc.
- Mean temperature in between 24°C and 27°C.
- Rainfall in between 100 cm and 150 cm.
- Trees are deciduous and hard.
- Tribes like Masai and Hausa are found in this region.
The Hot Desert and Mid-latitude Desert Climates
- It is located on western coasts of the continents between 15° and 30° N and S.
- Saharan desert, Great Australian desert, Arabian desert, Iranian desert, Thar, Namib, Atacama are some of the greatest deserts of the world.
- The hot deserts lie astride the Horse Latitude or Subtropical High Pressure Belts.
- Bushmen of Kalahari and Bindibu or Aborigines of Australia are nomadic hunters and food gatherers.
- Bedoium of Arabia, Tuaregs of Sahara, Gobi Mongols are some of the examples of Tribal groups.
- Climate is characterized by hot, dry summer and cool, wet winter.
- Vegetation includes cork oak, eucalyptus, Jarrah and Karri.
- Evergreen coniferous trees are pines, firs, cedars.
- Viticulture is widely followed in the Mediterranean lands.
Temperate Continental (Steppe) Climate
- Bordering the deserts, away from the Mediterranean regions and in the interiors of the continents are the temperate grasslands.
- In N. America, they are known as Prairies.
- In Argentina and Urugway Pampas.
- In South Africa - Veld
- In Hungary - Pustaz.
- Summers are very warm and winters are very cold.
- Average rainfall range between 10 to 30 inches.
The China type Climate
- This type of climate is found on the eastern margins of continents in warm temperate latitudes just outside the tropics.
- Rainfall is more than moderate, anything from 25 inches to 60 inches.
- Vegetation includes pines, cypresses, bamboo, palms.
The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Laurentian type)
- The cool temperate Eastern Margin Climate feature both the maritime and continental climates.
- It is found in Canada, north east USA, Siberia, North China, Mancharia, Korea and northern Japan.
- Important crops includes soyabeans, groundnuts, sesame, rapeseeds, tung oil and mulberry.
The Arctic or Polar Climate
- Polar type climate and vegetation is found mainly north of the Arctic circle in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Winters are long and very severe, summers are cool and brief. Main vegetation includes mosses, lichens and sedges.
- In Green land, northern Canada and Alaska there is Eskimos.
- In the Eurasian tundra there are other nomadic tribes such as the Lapps of northern Finland and Scandinavia, the Samoyeds of Siberia, Yakuts, Koryaks and Chukchi of north-eastern Asia.