Mineral Resource Industries Population and Multipurpose Projects of India

Category : UPSC

 

Mineral Resource Industries Population and Multipurpose Projects of India

 

MINERAL RESOURCE OF INDIA

 

Minerals are the natural resources which are used in many industries as raw materials. Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, copper, etc. are such minerals.

Minerals are of two types: metallic and non-metallic. Iron ore and copper are metallic minerals while limestone and dolomite are non-metallic minerals.

Metallic minerals are further sub-divided into ferrous and non-ferrous minerals. Those metallic minerals which have iron content belong to ferrous group. The metallic minerals belonging to non-ferrous group do not have iron content.

India is rich in iron, mica, manganese, bauxite; self-sufficient in antimony, building materials, cement materials, clay, chromite, lime, dolomite, and gold, but deficient in copper, lead, mercury, zinc, tin, nickel, petroleum products, rock phosphate, sulphur, and tungsten.

Mineral resources like potassium are totally absent and have to be imported. Minerals like crude petroleum (which accounts for about 80 per cent of the total value of Indian imports) diamonds (uncut), sulphur, and rock phosphorus are imported.

The state with the highest mineral output is Jharkhand.

India is rich in ferrrous metals but its reserves of non-ferrous metals are poor.

 

 

Mineral

Ore

Found in

Features

 

Iron

Magnetite-the best quality of iron ore and contains 72% pure iron. Haematite-contains 60 to 70% pure iron. Limonite-contains 40 to 60% pure iron. Siderite-contains many impurities and has just 40 to 50% pure iron.

Odisha (Sonai, Mayubhanj, Keonjhar), Jharkhand and Bihar (Singhbhum Hazaribagh, Palamau, Shahbad), Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh (Raipur, Durg, Bastar, Raigarh, Bilaspur, Jabalpur, Balaghat), Andhra Pradesh (Krishna, Kurnool, Chittor, Cuddapha, Warangal, Guntur), Tamil Nadu (Salem, Tiruchirapalli), Karnataka (Ballary, Chitradurg, Chikmagalur), Maharashtra (Ratnagiri, Chanda), Goa

India has the world's largest reserves, approximately one- fourth of world's known reserves; Jharkhand has the largest reserves accounting for about 25% of the total reserves of iron ore in India.

 

Coal (Black Gold)

Anthracite Coal?the best quality of coal and contains 80 to 95% carbon. It is found only in Jammu and Kashmir in small quantity. Bituminous coal?The most widely used coal and contains 40 to 80% carbon. It is found in Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. Lignite- Also known as brown coal. It is a lower grade coal and contains about 40 to

Bihar-Jharkhand-Bengal belt (Raniganj, Jharia, Giridih, Bokaro, Karanpur), Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh belt (Singrauli, Korba, Raigarh, Sonhat, Sohagpur. Umaria), Odisha (Desgarh, Talcher), Maharashtra (Chand), Andhra Pradesh (Singreni), Assam (Makum, Lakhimpur); in small quantities in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, and Nagaland

?About one-fourth of India?s coal reserves lie in the Damodar Valley, across Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. India is the fourth largest coal producing country in the world according to 1992 coal production in the country.?

 

 

50% carbon. It is found in Palna of Rajasthan, Neyveli of Tamil Nadu, Lakhimpur of Assam and Karewa of ammu and Kashmir. Peat-It is the first stage of transformation of wood nto coal and contains less than 40% Carbon.

 

 

Manganese

India has the second largest manganese ore reserves in the world after Zimbabwe. India is the fifth largest producer in the world after Brazil, Gabon, South Africa and Australia.

Odisha (Keonjhar, Kalahandi, Mayurbhaj, Talcher) Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Seoni, Chhindwara, Jabalpur), Maharashtra (Nagpur, Bhandara, Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Panchmahal), Kamataka (Chitradurg, Tumkur, Shimoga, Chikmagalur, Belgaum, North Canara, Dharwar), Jharkhand (Singbhum), Andhra Pradesh (Visakhapatnam), Rajasthan (Udaipur, Bansawara)

Orissa is the leading producer of manganese in the country. India ranks third in world in manganese reduction.

Mica

The three major types of mica found in India are - Muscovite, Phlogopite and Biotite.

Bihar (Gaya), Jharkhand (Hazanbagh), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Shahpur, Tonk, Bhilwara, Jaipur), Andhra Pradesh (Nellore)

India has largest deposits of mica in world India alone contributes about two-thirds of the world's production

Bauxite (aluminium ore)

 

Jharkhand (Palamu), Gujarat (Kaira), Madhya Pradesh (Katni, Jabalpur, Balaghat, Bilaspur, Bastar), Tamil Nadu (Salem), Kamataka (Chitradurg, Belgaum), Maharashtra (Kolhapur), Jammu and Kashmir (Kotii)

Third largest producer in the world.

Copper

India contributes to about 3.5 to 4% of the world's total production of copper.

Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Hazanbagh), Rajasthan (Khetri, Alwar, Bhilwara, Jhunjhunu, Sirohi), Andhra Pradesh (Guntur, Khamman, Agnigundala), Kamataka (Chitradurg, Hassan, Chikmagalur, Raichur), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat), Gujarat (Banaskantha); some quantities also found in Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.

Very meager reserves; almost all copper comes from Singbhum and Hazaribagh in Jharkhand and Khetri in Rajasthan.

Crude oil

51.08 crore tones

Assam, Tripura, Manipur, West Bengal, Ganga Valley, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch of West Bengal coast, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.

 

Lignite

429 crore tones

Tamil Nadu (Neyveli fields) Some deposits also found in Gujarat, Punducherry, Rajasthan (Palana fields) Jammu and Kashmir (Riasi fields).

Maximum deposits of about 383 cioie tones, are found in Tamil Nadu.

Gold

India's contribution to gold production across the world is less than one percen (0.75%).

Karnataka (Kolar gold fields, Hutt t Mines), in small quantities in Andhra Pradesh (Ramgiri gold fields and Anantpur).

Karnataka was the leading producer of i gold accounting for 99% of the total 1 production. The remaining production came from Jharkhand.

Magnesite

23.91 crore tones

Tamil Nadu (Salem), Uttrancha (Almora, Chamoli, Pithoragarh),Karnataka (Mysore, Hassan)

 

             

INDUSTRY

 

Agro-Based Industry

 

This group of industries depend on the raw material produced by agricultural sector. The products comprise mostly of the consumer goods.

 

 

Cotton Textiles Industry

 

 

Cotton accounts for 70% of the total fabric produced.

  • The first modern cotton textile mill was set up in 1818 at Fort Glaster near KolKata. But this mill could not survive and had to be closed down.
  • The first successful modern cotton textile mill was established at Mumbai in 1854 by a local Parsi entrepreneur C.N.Dewar.

 

Geographical distribution

Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Surat, Solapur, Pune, Nagpur

(Maharashtra and Gujarat). Coimbatore, Madurai and Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Ludhiana (Punjab), Bengaluru (Karnataka),Kolkata (West Bengal), Kanpur (Uttar  Pradesh).

 

Woolen Textile Industry

 

  • The first woolen textiles mill was set up in 1876 at Kanpur, because Kanpur was the principal depot for the British Indian Army.
  • The woolen textiles industry in India is partly a cottage industry and partly, a factory industry.

 

Georaphical spread

Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), Dhariwal and Ludhiana (Punjab), Mumbai (Maharashtra), Bengaluru (Karnataka), Jamnagar (Gujarat), Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir).

 

Jute Textiles Industry

  • This jute mill was set up at Rishra near Calcutta in 1855.
  • After independence, this sector made rapid progress as anexport-oriented industry.

 

Geographical location

  • Nearly 90% of the manufacturing capacity is located in a narrow belt about 100 km long and 3 km wide along river Hooghly.
  • Recently slight dispersal of industries have been marked as the use of gunny bag has increased to many folds in sugar and cement industries. These industries are producing gunny bags using local fibres like mesta and Bimlipatlan as the raw material for production.
  • West Bengal accounts for 84.1 per cent of the total jute manufactures of the country.
  • Andhra Pradesh contributes another 10 percent of the production.
  • India ranks number two in the export of jute goods in the world.

 

 

Sugar Industry

 

Indian sugar industry is the second largest agro-based industry in India.

 

Geographical distribution

Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alone account for 70% of th productive capacity and 75% of the total employment of 30 lakh.

  • Uttar Pradesh: There are two belts one in western Uttar Pradesh and the other in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The western belt includes Meerut, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bijnor and Moradabad, and the eastern belt includes Gorakhpur, Deoria, Basti and Gonda.
  • Bihar: This is an extension of the eastern Uttar Pradesh belt, which includes Darbhanda, Saran, Champaran and Muzaffarpur.
  • The reasons for concentration of sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are-

(i) fertile alluvial soil, rich in lime and potash;

(ii) level topography-suitable for irrigation;

(iii) abundant water for washing and processing;

(iv) sugar industry is relatively independent of coal and electricity, because bagasse is enough to run steam;

(v) densely populated market with excellent transport links;

(vi) availability of cheap labour;

(vii) cultivation is done in compact block, which ensures ready availability of fresh cane to factories.

  • In Maharashtra, Nasik, Pune, Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur, Sholapur are the centres well integrated in the cooperative sector in terms of cultivation and sugar factories.
  • In Punjab, Centres exist mainly in the eastern side, in Phagwara, Dhuri.
  • In Karnataka, Munirabad, Shimoga and Mandya are the main centres.
  • In Tamil Nadu, Nalikupuram, Pugulur, Coimbatore and Pandyarajpuram are famous for producing sugar.
  • Andhra Pradesh. Nizamabad, Medak, west and east Godavari, Visakhapatnam and Chittoor produce sugar.
    • In Odisha Bargarh and Rayagada in Odisha produce sugar.
    • In Madhya Pradesh, Sehore is the sugar producing centre.

 

Differences in Sugar production in North India and Peninsular India.

  1. Yields are higher in south India
  2. The southern sugarcane, being of the tropical variety, has more sucrose content.

3.         The crushing season is longer in the south, where it lasts from October to May-June. In the north, it lasts from November to February.

 

 

Silk Industry

 

  • India is the only country producing all the five known commercial varieties of silk, viz. Mulberry, Tasar (Tropical), Oak Tasar. Eri and Muea.
  • India is the second largest producer of raw silk, accounting for 20% of the world production, next to China.
  • Karnataka is the foremost silk producing state in India, which accounts for 50% of Mulberry silk of the country.
  • About 50% of India’s silk cloth is also manufactured in Karnataka, followed by West Bengal (13% of country’s total silk).

           

 

Metallurgical Industries

 

 

  • These industries form the economic backbone of a developing country.

 

 

Iron and Steel Industry

 

  • The first iron and steel unit on modem lines was established in 1830 at Porto Novo in Tamil Nadu.
  • But the real beginning of modern iron and steel industry was made in 1907 when TISCO was set up at Sakchi, Jamshedpur.
  • Indian Iron and Steel company (IISCO). Three plants at Kulti, Hirapur and Burnpur in West Bengal were set up in 1864, 1908 and 1937 respectively.
  • Mysore steel works at Bhadravati came into existence in 1923, produces alloy and pig iron.
  • Steel Authority of India (SAIL) established in 1973, SAIL is a government undertaking and is responsible for the management of Steel plants at Bhilai, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bokaro and Burnpur.
    • India is eighth largest producer of steel in the world.
  • The first on-shore steel plant in India was set up at Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) India is the leading country in the production of sponge iron.
  • Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) has the highest sales followed by Tata Steel Ltd (2004-05).

 

Different Steel Plants and their location

TISCO (Jharkhand) \[\to \]1907

Visweswaraya Steel Plant (Karnataka) \[\to \] 1923

Bhilai Steel Plant (Chhattisgarh) \[\to \]1957

Bokaro Steel Plant (Jharkhand) \[\to \] 1964

Rourkela Steel Plant (Orissa) \[\to \] 1959

Durgapur Steel Plant (West Bengal) \[\to \] 1959

 

Aluminium Smelting Industry

  • Aluminium smelting is the second important metallurgical industry of India, next only to Iron and Steel industry.
  • Manufacturing of aluminium metal commenced in 1886 and fabrication of utensils from imported metal started in 1929.
    • Indian Aluminium company started its production in 1938.
  • The Indian Aluminium company Ltd. (INOAL) started fabrication of sheets from imported alumina in 1943 and production of alumina from indigenous bouxite in 1948.
  • INDAL have 3 unit viz. at Muri (Jharkhand), at Alupuram (Kerala) and at Belur (Karnataka).
    • Aluminium is extracted from bauxite at Muri in Jharkhand.
  • The reduction plant of alumina is located at Alupuram in Kerala and the fabrication plant at Belur manufactures aluminium sheets, rods, aluminium paste, electric conductors, domestic utensils etc.
  • In order to achieve the economics of scale, a second smelter was set up at Hirakud.
  • The Hindustan Aluminium Corporation Limited (HINDALCO) is located at Renukoot near Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh and the Bharat Aluminium Company (BALCO) has set up two units at Korba and Ratnagiri, to utilize bauxite ores of Amarkantak in Chhattisgarh and of Udaigiri Dhangarvadi region in Maharashtra, respectively.
  • Integrated Aluminium plant of NALCO at Damanjodi near Jeypur in Koraput district of Odisha is the largest complex in India.
  • NALCO, the lowest cost producer of aluminium in the world, at present ranked among the top 10 global companies and is the second to HINDALCO in India.
  • Aluminium companies with the highest sales in descending order: HINDALCO, NALCO, INDAL, MALCO A huge public sector aluminium company, the National Aluminium Company (NALCO) was set up with assistance from a French company at Damanjodi near Jeypore (Koraput district in Odisha).

 

Engineering Industries

 

 

  • Manufacturing of heavy machinery made a begining in 1958 when Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd. was set up at Ranchi (Jharkhand).
  • These industries contribute about 10% of the total exports of the country.
  • Drills for drilling holes in rocky areas are manufactured at Naroda (Ahmedabad).
  • Kirloskar Brothers Ltd is the pioneer company in the manufacturing of machine tools.
  • HMT is the largest manufacture of machine tools in the country.
  • HMT’s plants: Bengaluru, Pinjore, Kalamassery (Kerala), Hyderabad, Sri Nagar and Ajmer.
  • Locomotives: Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, Diesel Locomotive Works (Varanasi), Tata Engineering and Locomotive Works (Jamshedpur) in 1964.
  • BHEL, Bhopal has been developed to manufacture electric locomotive for the Indian railways.
    • Wheel and Axle Plant was set up at Bengaluru in 1984.
  • The Integral Coach Factory at Perampur near Chennai was set up in 1955 with Swiss collaboration.
  • Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala (Punjab) was set up in 1988.
  • Bharat Movers Limited at Bengaluru also produces railways coaches.
  • Most of wagons are produced in private sector. About 60% of wagons are produced in West Bengal.

 

 

Automobile Industry

 

  • The real development of the industry began with the establishment of the premier Automobiles LTd. at Kuria (Mumbai) in 1947 and the Hindustan Motors Ltd. at Uttarpara (Kolkota) in 1948.
    • Automobile Industry contributes about 5% to GDP.
    • Top four automobile companies with the highest sales:
  • Tata Motors
  • Maruti Udyog Ltd.
    • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.
  • Ashok Leyland Ltd.
  • In medium and heavy commercial vehicles, TELCO produces over 70% of such vehicles in India.
    • In passenger cars, Maruti Udyog Ltd is at the top position.
    • Almost the entire production of jeeps comes from
  • Mahindra, Mumbai.
  • Indian has second largest market for two - wheelers in the world after China.

 

Fertilizer Industry

 

 

  • The first super-phosphate factory was set up at Ranipet in Tamil Nadu in 1906.
  • India is now the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers in the world.
  • Gujarat has more than 14% of the country’s total installed capacity in India followed by Tamil Nadu (11 %) and UP (9%).

 

 

Aircraft Industry

 

  • The first aircraft industry was set up at Bengaluru in 1940 under the name of Hindustan Aircraft Ltd.
  • Later, Hindustan Aircraft Ltd was merged into Aeronautics India Ltd in 1964 to form Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.
    • Different Divisions of HAL and production:
    • Nashik division - MIG airframe
    • Koraput division - Engine of MIG aircraft
    • Hyderabad division - Electronic equipment of MIG.
    • Transport aircrafts are manufactured at Kanpur.
  • Recently, a factory was set up at Lucknow for producing equipment for aircraft.
    • Ship Building Industry.

 

Main Centres

Public Sector

Kolkata (West Bengal)

The Garden Reach work shop

Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)

Hindustan Shipyard Ltd.

Cochin (Kerala)

Cochin Shipyard Ltd.

Mumbai (Maharastra)

The Mazgaom Dock

Goa

Goa Shipyard.

 

 

Cement Industry

 

 

  • The first attempt to manufacture cement in India was made in 1904 when a mill based on sea shells as a source of limestone was established at chennai. But this attempt proved obortive and a really successful attempt was made in 1912-13 when the Indian cement co. Ltd set up a plant at porbandar.
  • The Indian Cement industry is the second largest in the world after that of China.
  • States with the largest cement capacity are Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat (in, descending order).

 

 

Glass Industry

 

 

  • The first successful organised slass factory was set up in 1941.
  • The Industry under went large scale modernisation after Independence. At present, India is a major producer of glass and glass products.
  • The main raw material for the industry is silica sand, Uttar Pradesh is the leading producer of glass in India followed by West Bengal and Maharashtra.
  • Ferozabad in Agra district is the largest producer of glass, followed by Bahjoi, Nairn, Hathras, Sasni and Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.

 

 

India Towns Associated with Industries

 

Town

State

Indistries

Ahmedabad

Gujarat

Cotton Textiles

Agra

U.P.

Leather, Marble, Carpet, glass

Aligarh

U.P,

Locks, Cultery

Ankleshwar

Gujarat

Oil Fields

Ambernath

Maharashtra

Machine Tools

Anand

Gujarat

Milk and its Products

Ambala

Haryana

Scientific Instruments

Bangalore

Karnataka

Telephones Aircrafts, Motors, Cotton, Textiles, Toys

Batanagar

West Bengal

Shoes

Barielly

Uttar Pradesh

Resin Industries, Match Factory

Bhilai

Chhattisgarh

Steel Plant

Bhandara

Maharashtra

Explosives

Bhadravati

Karnataka

Iron & Steel

Bhadohi

Uttar Pradesh

Carpets

Churk

Madhya Pradesh

Cement

Cyberabad

Andhra Pradesh

Electronics, Computers, Information Technology

Chitranjan

West Bengal

Locomotive

Kolkata

West Bengal

Jute, Leather, Electric goods

Cochin

Kerala

Coffee, Coconut

Digboi

Assam

Petroleum

Darjeeling

Best Bengal

Tea

Frazabad

Madhya Pradesh

Bangal Works

Hardwar

Uttarkhand

Heavy electricals

Jamshedpur

Jharkhand

Iron & Steel, Locomotives, Railway Coaches

Jabalpur

Madhya Pradesh

Bidi Industry

Jainakot

Jammu & Kashmir

H.M.T. Watch

Kanpur

Uttar Pradesh

Cotton and Woollen mills, Leather, sugar

Katni

Madhya Pradesh

Cement

Koyna

Maharashtra

Aluminium factory

Kanchipuram

Tamil Nadu

Silk Clothes

Karnal

Haryana

Dairy product

Kandia

Gujarat

Chemical fertiliser, famous port

Khetri

Rajasthan

Copper Industries

Ludhiana

Punjab

Hosiery

Lucknow

Uttar Pradesh

Embroidery work, chicken work

Mathura

Uttar Pradesh

Oil refinery

Meerut

Uttar Pradesh

Publication work, sports goods, scissors making

Modinagar

Uttar Pradesh

Nylon thread

Nagpur

Maharashtra

Cotton mills

Nepanagar

Madhya Pradesh

Newsprint

Panna

Madhya Pradesh

Diamond Mining

Pinjore

Haryana

Hindustan Machines Tools

Raniganj

West Bengal

Coal mining

Renukoote

Uttar Pradesh

Aluminium plant

Rishikesh

Uttarkhand

Antibiotic plant

Saharanpur

Uttar Pradesh

Cigarett factory, News print

Srinagar

Jammu & Kashmir

Woolen shawls, silk, woodwork

Surat

Gujarat

Cotton textiles, Diamond Cutting

Vishakhapatnam

Andhra Pradesh

Ship building, Iron, and steel, oil refinery

Varanasi

Uttar Padesh

Rail Engines and Saari Industries

 

 

ENERGY

 

Conventional Energy

 

 

  • Power development in India commenced with the commissioning of electricity supply in Darjeeling during 1897, followed by a hydropower station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka during 1902.
    • India is the fifth largest electricity producing in the world.
  • The installed power generation capacity in the country has been increased to 144564.97 MW (31 October 2007) comprising 88216MW thermal, 34391MW hydro, 6190.86MW wind and 3360 MW nuclear.

 

 

Major Power Plants

 

Thermal Power Plant

Power Station

Operator

Year of Establishment

Location

District

State

Talcher Super Thermal Power Station

NTPC

1995

Kaniha

Angul

Odisha

Sipat Thermal Power Plant

NTPC

2008

Sipat

Bilaspur

Chhattisgarh

Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power Station

NTPC

2013

Singrauli

Vindhya Nagar

Madhya Pradesh

Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project

Tata Power

2009

Mundra

Kutch

Gujarat

Korba Super Thermal Power Plant

NTPC

1983

Jamani Palli

Korba

Chhattisgarh

Bhusawal Thermal Power Station

MAHAG ENCO

1968

Deepnagar Jalgaon

Jalgao

Maharashtra

Satpura Thermal Power Station

MPPGCL

1967

Sarni

Betul

Madhya Pradesh

Sterlite Jharsuguda Power Station

Vedanta

2006

Jharsuguda

Jharsuguda

Odisha

Durgapur Thermal Power Station

DVC

1996

Durgapur

Bardhaman

West Bengal

 

 

 

Nuclear Power Plant  

Power Station

Operator

Year of Establishment

Location

District

State

Tarapur Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1969

Tarapur

Thane

Maharashtra

Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1973

Rawatbhata

Chittorgarh

Rajasthan

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1993

Kakrapar

Surat

Gujarat

Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant

NPCIL

2013

Kudankulam

Tirunelveli

Tamil Nadu

Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant

NPCIL

2000

Kaiga

Uttara Kannada

Kamataka

Madras Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1984

Kalpakkam

Kancheepuram

Tamil Nadu

Narora Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1991

Narora

Bulandshahar

Uttar Pradesh

Gorakhpur Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

 

Fatehabad

Fatehabad

Haryana

 

 

 

Hydro Power Plant

Power Station

Operator

Year of Establishment

Location

State

Bhakra Dam

BBMB

1963

Bilaspur

Himachal Pradesh,

Tehri Dam

THDC India Limited

2006

Tehri

Uttarakhand

Machkund

APGENCO

1955

Jeypore

Andhra Pradesh

Hirakund - I

OHPC

1957

Burla

Odisha

Saradar Sarovar-RBPH

SSNNL

2006

Navagam

Gujrat

 

 

Wind Power Plant

Power Station

Operator

Year of Establishment

Location

State

Muppandal Wind Farm

Muppandal Winds

1985

Kanyakumri

Tamil Nadu

Jaisalmer Wind Farm

Suzlon Energy

2001

Jaisalmer

Rajasthan

Brahmanvel Wind Farm

Parakh Agro Industry

2006

Dhule

Maharashtra

Dhalgaon

Grade Mission Export

2008

Sangli

Maharashtra

Damanjodi wind Plant

Suzlon Energy

2014

Koraput

Odisha

 

 

 

India's Major Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Power Plants

Power Station

Operator

Year of Establishment

Location

State

Charanka Solar Power Plant

GMR group

2012

Patan

Gujarat

Neemuch Solar Power Plant

Welspun Solar.

2014

Neemuch

Madhya Pradesh

Sakri Power Plant

Maharashtra state power generation company

2013

Dhule

Maharashtra

GEDCOL Solar Power Plant

Green Energy Development Corporation Ltd.

2014

Boudh district

Odisha

Dhirubhai Ambani Solar Plant

Reliance Industries

2012

Jaisalmer

Rajasthan

 

 

OTHER ENERGY SOURCES

 

 

  • A five KW, geothermal pilot power plant has been commissioned at Manikaran in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. Puga valley in Ladakh and Tattapani in Chhattisgarh have been finalised for geothermal plant.
    • In tidal energy, India has the potential of 8000-9000 MW.

The Gulf of Khambhat (7000 MW), followed by Gulf of Kachchh (1000 MW) and Sunderbans (100 MW) are significant sites for tidal power. The feasibility of a tidal power project at Durgaduani creek in Sunderbans area of West Bengal is also being examined.

  • One wave energy power plant has been installed at Vizhinjam near Thiruvananthapuram. Another plant is being set up in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • The first plant of ocean thermal energy conversion of 100 MW is proposed to be set up off the coast of Tamil Nadu.


 

 

MAJOR PORTS

 

On the West Coast

 

1.            Cochin Port, Kerala: It is major natural port. It deals in fertilizers, petroleum and general cargo.

2.            Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Maharashtra: Major port in Mumbai. It is ranked among world?s top 30 ports. Earlier it was called as Nhava Sheva.

3.            Kandia Port, Gujarat: It is a tidal port and a free trade zone has been set up here. Important traffic handles are crude oil, petroleum products, edible oil, foodgrains, salt, cotton etc. It is located in Runn of Kachchh.

4.            Marmugao Port, Goa: One of the oldest natural harbor on west coast. It was declared a major port. In 1963. It occupies the fifth position in terms of total quantum of traffic handled.

5.            New Mangalore Port, Karnataka: It is an all-weather port. Iron ore of Kudremukh is being exported now here.

Other items are petroleum products, fertilizers, molasses, etc. It is an Artificial Lagoon port.

6.            Port of Mumbai, Maharashtra: Port of Mumbai has long been the principal gateway of India. Mumbai handles the maximum traffic. It is a natural harbour with wet dock. It handles over one fifth of the total traffic of ports, mostly petroleum products and dry cargo.

 

 

On the East Coast

 

7.            Kolkata Port, West Bengal: Kolkata is the oldest major port in the country. Kolkata Port is India's only riverine port. It has the most sophisticated port facilities with extensive storage facility for diverse cargo.

8.            Paradip Port, Odisha: One of India's major ports, located in Paradip. Government of India declared Paradip as the Eighth Major Port of India on 18 April 1966 making it the first major port in the east coast commissioned in Independent India. It handles iron ore and some quantities of coal and dry cargo. It is a wet dock.

9.            Port of Cheimai, Tamil Nadu: It is the second largest port in the volume of traffic handled. Important items are petroleum products, crude oil, fertilizers, iron ore and dry cargo and oldest artificial port of India. It has artificial harbour and a wet dock.

10.          Port of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh: It is described as the Brightest Jewel of all Indian major ports for its outstanding performance and productivity. It is the deepest port. An outer harbour has been developed for exporting iron ore and a berth for crude oil is located here. It has both artificial and natural harbour.

11.          Tuticorin Port, Tamil Nadu : Tuticorin Port is anartificial deep-sea harbour. It is an all-weather port. It handles mainly coal, salt, edible oil, dry cargo and petroleum products.

12.          Kamarajor Port Ltd. Tamil Nadu: It is the 12th major port and first corporatised major port in India; a Government of India undertaking. It handles coal, iron ore, LNG, chemical & other liquids, & crude since 2001.

Artificial harbour is found here.

Ennore Port, officially renamed Kamarajar Port limited, is located on the Coromandel Coast.

13.          Portblair-Andman Nicobar: It is the latest addition to the major port on June 2010, the thirteen port in the country.

 

 

Minor and Intermediate Ports

 

There are 140 such ports which include Rediport (Maharashtra), Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh) and Calicut (Kerala). Other ports proposed to be developed as minor ports are Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep and Puducherry. These ports can relieve the overloaded major ports and can be used as bases for deep-sea fishing. These ports mainly serve coastal trade and support passenger traffic where there is no proper rail or road link.

 

Tribal Groups of India

Tribal Group

Found in

Tribal Group

Found in

Abhor

Arunachal Pradesh

Khond

Jharkhand

Adivasi

AP, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Some Northeastern States, West Bangal, Andaman and Nicobar

Khasi

Meghalaya

Ahgani

Manipur

Kharia

Jharkhand, Odisha

Apatani

Arunachal Pradesh

Kol

Madhya Pradesh

Baiga

Madhya Pradesh

Kolam

Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telengana, MP

Bakarwal

Jammu and Kashmir

Kota

Karnataka

Bhil

M.P and Rajasthan

Kuki

Mizoram

Birhor

M.P and Bihar

Lahaula

Himachal Pradesh

Chang

Nagaland

Lepcha

Sikkim

Chenchuas

Telengana, Karnataka

Lushai

Mizoram, Manipur

Sutiya

Assam

Muria

Chhattisgarh

Gaddis

Himachal Pradesh

Miha

Rajasthan

Gallong

Arunachal Pradesh

Moplah

Malabar

Garo

Meghalaya

Munda

West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattishgarh

Gond

M.P and Bihar

Nishi

Assam

Gujjar

Rajasthan

Naga

Nagaland

Irula

Tamil Nadu

Oraon

MP, Bihar and Odisha, Chhotanagpur, WB,

Jaintia

Meghalaya

Onges

Andaman & Nicobar

Jarawa

Andamans

Singpho

Assam, Arunachal Pradesh

Kanikar

Tamil Nadu and Kerala

Santhal

WB, Odisha & Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam

Kalkari

Maharashtra

Sangtam

Nagaland

Kharia

Maharashtra

Sema

Nagaland

 

 

Sentinelese

Andaman & Nicobar

 

 

Shompen

Andaman & Nicobar

 

 

Toda

Tamil Nadu

 

 

Uralis

Kerala

 

 

Wancho

Arunachal Pradesh

 

 

 

 

Warli

 

Maharashtra, Daman and Diu, Bihar, Madhaya  Pradesh, West Bengal Dadra, Nasar Haveli

 

Population Analysis (Census-2011)

 

  1. Highest Population (State)

(i) U.P. - 19.981 crore

(ii) Maharastra - 11.237 crore

(iii) Bihar - 10.409 crore

Highest Population (Union Territory)

(i) Delhi - 16787941

(ii) Puducherry - 1247953

(iii) Chandigarh - 1055450

  1. Lowest Population (State)

(i) Sikkim - 610,577

(ii) Mizoram- 1,097,206

Lowest population (U.T.)

(i) Lakshadweep - 64,473

(ii) Daman & Diu - 243,247

  1. Highest Literacy (State)

(i) Kerala-94%

(ii) Mizoram-91.3%

(iii) Goa- 88.7%

(iv) Tripura - 87.2%

  1. Lowest Literacy (State)

(i) Bihar-61.8%

(ii) Arunanchal Pradesh - 65.4%

(iii) Rajasthan- 66.1%

Highest Literacy (U.T.)

(i) Lakshedweep - 91.8%

(ii) Daman & Diu-87.1%

(iii) Andmann & Nicobar Island - 86.6%

Lowest Literacy (U.T.)

(i) Dadara & Nagar Haveli - 76.2%

(ii) Puducherry - 85.8%

  1. Highest Sex Ratio (State)

(i) Kerala - 1084

(ii) Tamil nadu - 996

(iii) Andhra pradesh - 993

Lowest Sex Ratio (State)

(i) Haryana - 879

(ii) Jammu & Kasmir - 889

(iii) Sikkim - 890

Highest Sex Ratio (U.T.)

(i) Puducherry - 1087

(ii) Lakshadweep - 947

(iii) Andmann & Nicobar Island - 876

Lowest Sex Ratio (U.T.)

(i) Daman & Diu-618

(ii) Dadra & Nagar Haweli - 774

  1. Highest Density (State)

(i) Bihar-1106

(ii) W. Bengal - 1028

(iii) Kerala - 860

Highest Density (U.T.)

(i) Delhi-11320

(ii) Chandigarh - 9258

(iii) Puducherry - 2547

Lowest Density (State)

(i) Arunanchal Pradesh - 17

(ii) Mizoram - 52

(iii) Sikkim - 86

Lowest Density (U.T.)

(i) Andman & Nicobar - 46

(ii) Dadra and Nagar Haweli - 700

  1. Highest population growth (State)

(i) Meghalaya - 27.9

(ii) Arunanchal Pradeah - 26.0

(iii) Bihar - 25.4

Lowest population growth (State)

(i) Nagaland - (-) 0.6

(ii) Kerala - 4.9

(iii) Lakshadweep - 6.3

Highest population growth (U.T.)

(i) Dadar& Nagar Haweli - 55.90

(ii) Daman & Diu - 53.8

Lowest population growth (U.T.)

(i) Lakshadweep - 6.3

(ii) Andmann & Nicobar Island - 6.9

Ethnic Groups

Tribes

Race

Islands

Onges

Negroid

Little Nicobar

Sentmelese

Negroid

Sentinel Island

Jarawa

Negroid

Middle & South Andaman

Andamanese

Negroid

Strait Island

Shompen

Mongloid

Great Nicobar

Nicobarese

Mongloid

Great Nicobar

 

 

Multipurpose Projects

Sr. No.

Name of the Project

River

Purpose

Beneficiary States

1.

Bhakra-Nangal Project

The project consists of:

(i) Bhakra dam (second highest in the

    world) - 518 m long, 226 high

(ii) Nangal dam

(iii) Nangal hydel channels

(iv) 4 power houses (Biggest in Asia)

Sutlej (Hoshiarpur district in Punjab)

Power and irrigation

Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan

2.

Damodar Valley Corporation Project The project consists of:

(i) Tilaiya dam

(ii) Konar dam

(iii) Maithon dam

(iv) Panchet Hill dam

(v) Power houses at Bokaro, Durgapur, and Chandrapur

Damodar

Power, irrigation, flood control

Bihar and West Bengal, shared by Madhya Pradesh

3.

Hirakund

This is a dam project. The main dam is 4,800 m long, 28.9 m high (World?s largest mainstream dam)

Mahanadi

Power and irrigation

Odisha

4.

Tungabhadra Project

Tungabhadra (tributary of river Krishna)

Power and irrigation

Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka

5.

Mayurakshi Project

Murali

Power and irrigation

West Bengal

6.

Nagarjunasagar Project

Krishna

Power and irrigation

Andhra Pradesh

7.

Gandak River Project

Gandak (tributary of Ganga)

Power and irrigation

Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal (Joint venture of India and Nepal)

8.

Kosi Project

Kosi

Flood control, power and irrigation

Bihar

9.

Farakka Project

Ganga, Bhagirathi

Power, irrigation, avoid accumulation of silt to improve navigation

West Bengal

10.

Beas Project Units : Beas-Sutlej link Beas dam at Pong Beas transmission system

Beas

Irrigation and power

Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh

11.

Rajasthan Canal Project

Sutlej in Punjab, Beas, and Ravi

Irrigation

Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana

12.

Chambal Project Units

(a) Gandhisagar dam

(b) Rana Pratap Sagar dam

(c) Jawahar Sagar dam

Chambal

Power and irrigation

Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan

13.

Kakrapara Project

Tapti

Irrigation

Gujarat

14.

Nagpur Power Station

 

Koradi

Thermal power Maharashtra

15.

Ukai Project

Tapti

Power and irrigation

Gujarat

16.

Tawa Project

Tawa (Narmada)

Irrigation

Madhya Pradesh

17.

Poochampad Project

Godavari

Irrigation

Andhra Pradesh

18.

Malaprabha Proiect

Malaprabha

Irrigation

Karnataka

19.

Durgapur Barrage

Damodar

Irrigation, Navigation, between Kolkata and Raniganj

West Bengal and Bihar

20.

Mahi

Mahi

Irrigation

Gujarat

21.

Mahanadi Delta Project

Mahanadi

Irrigation

Orissa

22.

Idukki Project

Periyar

Hydroelectricity

Kerala

23.

Koyna Project

Koyna

Hydroelectricity

Maharashtra

24.

Upper Krishna Project

Krishna

Irrigation

Karnataka

25.

Ramaganga Multipurpose Project

Chisot stream near kala

Power and irrigation

Uttar Pradesh

26.

Matatilla project

Betwa

Multipurpose power and irrigation

Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh

27.

Tehri Dam Project

Bhilangana, Bhagirath

Hydroelectricity

Uttar Pradesh

28.

Narmada Sagar Valley Project

Narmada

 -

Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra

29.

Obra Power Station

Obra

Thermal power

Uttar Pradesh

30.

Rihand Scheme

Rihand

Hydroelectricity

Uttar Pradesh

31.

Kundah Project

Kundah

Hydroelectricity and irrigation

Tamil Nadu

 



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