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UPSC Geography Soil Soil, Natural Vegetation, Wildlife and Agriculture of India

Soil, Natural Vegetation, Wildlife and Agriculture of India

Category : UPSC

 

Soil, Natural Vegetation, Wildlife and Agriculture of India

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials which develop on the earth's surface. Soil forms different layers of particles of different sizes. A vertical section that shows different layers of soil is called a Soil Profile. Each layer is called a Horizon.

 

 

 

Basic Facts

 

  • Soil formation process is called pedogenesis and the scientific study of soils is known as
    • Under the soil layer are gravels of parent rock and concretions formed by the accumulation of leached materials collectively known as sub-soil.
    • There are two classes of minerals abundant in soils.

Primary minerals and Secondary minerals.

  • Primary minerals are mostly silicate minerals-compounds of silicon and oxygen, with varying proportions of aluminium, calcium, sodium, iron and magnesium. But they play no important role in sustaining plant or animal life.
  • Secondary minerals - clay minerals, mineral oxides, etc. are essential for soil development and for soil fertility.
  • The nature of the clay minerals in a soil determines its base status. If the clay minerals can hold abundant base ions, the soil is of high base status and generally will be

Soil Forming Processes - The transformation of rocks into soil is called soil formation.

The fundamental & specific process of soil formation are as follows -

 

  1. Weathering - the process that results in the break down and chemical changes of the parent rocks in situ.

 

  1. Humification - It is the process of transformation of raw organic matter into humus. It helps in formation of surface layer.

 

  1. Translocation - It refers to the material movement within the solid body. Two process of translocation are eluviation and illuviation.

 

  1. Eluviation - the downward transport of fine particles, particularly the clays and colloids, from the uppermost part of the soil.

 

  1. Illuviation - the accumulation of materials that are brought downward, in the underlying zone.

 

  1. Calcification - occurs in dry regions where due to lack of excessive moisture, the soil accumulates considerable amount of soluble materials of calcium carbonate and magnesium in some part of soil profile.

 

  1. Decalcification - the leaching of calcium carbonate from the entire soil. It generally happens in moist climates.-

 

  1. Salinisation or alkalisation takes place in the case of extreme evaporation where soluble salts or sodium salts accumulate on the soil surface as a result of the capillary action of water from a water table.

 

  1. Desilication - In this process, silica, together with many bases, is removed from a soil profile by intense weathering and leaching. It leads to development of ferralsol soils. Desilicified soils are known as ferralsols.

 

Major Soil Groups of India

(i)         Alluvial Soil

  • Alluvial Soils are by far the largest and the most in important soil group of India
  • Most of the alluvial soils are derined from the sediments deposited by rivers as in the Indo-Gangetic plain although some alluvial soils in the coastal areas have been formed by the sea waves.
  • It covers about 15 lakh sq.. km (45.6%) of the total land area of the country.
    • It contributes largest share of our agricultural wealth.
    • It is yet immature and has weak profiles.
  • It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid, lime and organic matter but deficient in nitrogen and humus contents. It is one of the most fertile in the world.
  • The widest occurrence of the alluvial soils is in the great indo-Gangetic plain starting from punjab in the west to West Bengal and Assam in the east.
  • It is divided mainly into younger Khadar and older Bhangar
  • Khadar soils are found in the low areas of valley bottom which are flooded almost every year.
  • The Bhangar is found on the higher areas of the flood plains. A few metres below the surface of the bhangar are beds of lime nodules known as
    • Along the Shiwalik foothills, there are alluvial fans having coarse, often pebbly soils. This zone is called Bhabar
  • To the south of the bhabar is a long narrow strip of swampy lowland with silty soils known as Terai. The terai soils are rich in nitrogen and organic matter but are deficient in phosphate.

 

Difference between khadar and Bhangar 

 

Khadar

Bhangar

(i)

khadar is the newer and younger deposits of the flood plains

Bhangar is the older alluvium. It forms the largest part of the Northern plains

(ii)

This type of alluvial soil found in the lower levels in the plains near the rivers.

Bhangar found in higher up in the plains at river terraces away from rivers

(iii)

It is loamy and porous soil.

It is clayey and non-porous soil

(iv)

It is more fertile than Bhangar as new layers are deposited year after year during monsoonal floods

It is less fertile than khadar as it is not renewed.

(v)

It is pale brown, sandy clays & loams, more dry & leached less calcareous & carbonaceous

It is generally dark coloured & of a more clayey composition.

 

(ii)        Black soils

  • They are also known as ‘Regur’ and ‘Black cotton’
  • They are spread over 5.18 Lakh sq. km (16.6%) of the total geographical area of the country.
  • The black colour of these soils has been attributed to the presence of a small proportion of titaniferous magnetite or even to iron and black constituents of the parent rock.
  • The black soil is very retentive of moisture. It swells greatly and become sticky when wet in rainy season, and shrink when dried in dry season and develop wide cracks. Thus, there occurs a kind of 'self ploughing’.
  • They contain lime, iron, magnesium, alumina and potash but lack phosphorous, nitrogen, organic matter and humus.
  • Generally, the black soils of uplands are of low fertility but they are darker, deeper and richer in the valleys.
  • It covers platcau of Mahrashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, port Rajasthan, Central and South Tamil Nadu.

 

(iii)       Red and Yellow Soils

  • Most of the red soils have come into existence due to weathering of ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
  • The soil develops a reddish colour due to a wide diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
  • It covers about 3.5 lakh sq.. km (10.6%) of the total geographical area of the country.
  • The red soils are poor in lime, magnesia, phosphates nitrogen and humus, but are fairly rich in potash.
    • They are lying on the periphery of the peninsular plateau.
    • They are not retentive of moisture.
    • It covers larger parts of Tamil Nadu, eastern Andhra Predesh Karnataka, Southern part of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, parts of Odisha and Chhota Nagpur region.

 

(iv)       Laterite soils

  • Derives from Latin word ‘Laterite’ meaning ‘brick’.
  • Laterite soil covers 2.48 Lakh km2
  • The laterite soils are formed in die areas of high temperature and high rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods.
  • These are the result of intense leaching. With rain, lime and silica are leached away and soils rich in iron oxide and aluminium compound are left behind.
  • They are poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate and calcium, while iron oxide & potash are in excess. The laterite soils on the higher areas are generally more acidic than those in the low-lying areas.
  • They are widely use in formation of bricks for construction of house.
  • Tropical humid areas where rainfall is more than 200 cm e.g. hills of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Slopes of Eastern Ghats.

 

(v)        Arid and semi-arid soils

  • They cover an area of 1.421akhsq. km (4.32%) of the total area of India.
  • The desert soils consist of sand (90 to 95%) and clay (5 to 10%).
  • Nitrogen is insufficient and the phosphate content is normal.
  • Lower horizons of the soil are occupied by ‘Kankar’ layers because of the increasing calcium content downwards.
  • These soils are poor and contain little humus and organic matter.
    • It covers South - West Punjab, Southern Haryana, Western Rajasthan and Kann of Kachchh in Gujarat

 

(vi)       Saline and Alkaline soils

  • They are known by different names such as reh, kallar, usar, thur, rakar, karl & chopan.
    • Saline soils contain a larger proportion of sodium, potassium and magnesium and thus, they are infertile.
  • They occur in arid and semi-arid regions and in waterlogged and swampy areas.
  • They lack nitrogen and calcium.
  • It covers sundarban areas of West Bengal, Kachchh region of Gujarat and delta region of eastern coast.

 

(vii)      Peaty and Organic soils

  • They are found in the areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity.
  • They are rich in humus and organic content, but deficient potosh and phosphate.
  • Organic matter may go even up to 40-50 %.
  • They are normally heavy and black m colour & highly acidic.
  • They are confined to depression caused by dried lakes in alluvial and coastal plain areas and developed under water logged environments for example, Regions like kari in Kerala, Tamil Nadu Coastal Odisha, West Bengal and Bihar.

(viii)     Forest and Mountain soils

  • These soils occupy about 2.85 lakh sq. km (8.67%) of the total land area of the country.
  • Such soils are mainly found on the hills slopes covered by forests.
  • These soils are heterogenous in nature and their character changes with parent rocks, ground-configuration and climate.
  • The forest soils are very rich in humus but are deficient in potash, phosphorus and lime.
  • The forest soils are loamy and silty on valley sides and coarse-grained in the upper slopes.
  • Himalayan region of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal pradesh, Also in western and Eastern Ghats as well as in some region of penisular plateau.

 

Soil Conservation

Soil Conservation includes all those measures which help in protecting the soil from erosion and exhaustion. Following methods are normally adopted for conservation soil

(1) Afforestatioh

(2) Checking overgrazing:

(3) Constructing Dams

(4) Changing Agricultural Practices

• crap rotation

• strip cropping

• contour ploughing

• checking shifting cultivation

 

 

 

 

Soils of India: Types, Depth, pH Range and Regional Distribution

 

Type

pH range

Distribution Predominant Crops

Predominant Crops

 

Alluvial Soil

6.5-8.4

Ganga and Brahmaputra river valleys; deltas of Godavari and Krishna; Plains of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal and Bihar; Coastal strip of peninsular India

Rice, wheat, sugarcane, oilseeds, Jute, maize, vegetables & fruits.

Desert Soil

7.6-8.4

Rajasthan, northern Gujarat and southern Punjab

Wheat, grams, melon, bajra (with irrigation), barley, cotton, maize, pulses.

Black Soil

6.5-8.4

Maharashtra and Malwa plateaus, Kathiawar peninsula, Telengana and Rayalasema region of Andhra and northern part of Karnataka, some parts of Tamil Nadu.

Cotton, millets, tobacco, sugarcane (Millets include jowar, bajra and ragi), castor, sunflower.

Red & yellow Soil

Below 5.5- 7.5

Scattered in peninsular India, Eastern parts of Deccan plateau, southern states of Kerala, Tamil

Millets, wheat, tobacco, rice, cotton, sugarcane, pulses, groundnut, potatoes,

Latente Soil

Below 5.5

Assam hills, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, and Eastern Ghat region of Orissa.

Coffee, rubber, cashewnut, tapioca

 

Mountain Soil (It includes peat, forest and hill soils)

5.0-6.5

Coniferous forest belt of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim.

Fruits, tea, coffee, wheat, maize, barley.

 

Saline Soils

 

Western Gujarat, deltas of Eastern Coast & in Sunderban areas of West Bengal

 

 

Peaty & Marshy Soils

 

Northern part of Bihar, Southern part of Uttaranchal & the coastal areas of West Bengal, Orissa & Tamil Nadu

 

 

           

 

Rainfall

  • The average annual rainfall of India is about 118 cm. There are large spatial and temporal variations.
  • Of the country's total rainfall, about 75 per cent is received in the monsoon months from June to September, 13 per cent comes in the post-monsoon season, 10 per cent in the pre-monsoon season and the remaining 2 per cent in the winter season.
    • In January and February, north-west India gets rainfall from the western disturbances.
    • Coromandel coast receives rainfall by the north-east monsoons in the winter season.
    • The highest record, is 103.6 cm in 24 hours at Cherrapunji in Meghalaya.

 

 

Natural Vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate & soil conditions as fully as possible.

 

  • The geographical factors which influence natural vegetation include climate, soil and topography.
  • Areas receiving 200 cm or more rainfall per annum have evergreen rain forests.
  • Monsoon deciduous forests dominate in areas which receive rainfall between 100 and 200 cm.
  • In areas having 50 to 100 cm rainfall, there are drier deciduous or tropical savanna grading into open thorny scrub.
  • The areas with less than 50 cm rainfall have only dry thorny scrub and low open bush merging into semi- desert.
  • As the temperature falls with altitude in the Himalayan region, the vegetal cover changes from tropical to sub-tropical, temperate and finally alpine.
  • The forests are very unevenly distributed. They are more scarce in Gangetic area.

 

India State of Forest Report

The word forest is derived from Latin ‘fores’ meaning outside, the reference beging to a fence & it must have included all uncultivated & unhabited land.   

  • Total forest and tree cover is 79.42 million hectare, which is 24.34% of the total geographical area.
  • India’s forest and tree cover has increased by 5, 081 sq. km. While the total forest cover of the country has increased by 3, 775 sq. km, the tree cover has gone up by 1, 306sq. km.
  • Open Forest area has increased by 4, 744 sq. km, which is 9.14% of the geographical area.
  • Very Dense Forest area has increased by 2, 404 sq. kms, which is 2.61 % of the geographical area.
  • About 40 % forest cover is in 9 big patches of 10, 000 sq. km and more.
  • Increase in total forest cover also includes an increase in Mangrove cover.
  • Maximum increase in forest cover has been observed in -Tamil Nadu (2, 501 sq. km), followed by Kerala (1, 317 sq. km) and Jammu & Kashmir (450 sq. km).
  • Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover of 77, 462 sq. km in the country, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, with a forest cover of 67, 248 sq. km & Chhattisgarh with 55, 586 sq. km.
    • Mizoram (88.93 %) has the highest forest cover in percentage terms, followed by Lakshadweep (84.56) %.
    • 7 States/UTs- Mizoram, Lakshadweep, Andaman & Morralanrl Mpohalava and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Ptadesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Manipur-have more than 75% forest cover.
  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands have gained around 1, 930 km of very dense, U.P added 572 km- of very dense forest cover and Tamil Nat has reported a not gains 100 km2 of very dense forest. North-Eastern states have experienced a decline in forest cover except Manipur.
    • 8 states-Tripura, Goa, Sikkim, Kerala, Uttarakhand, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Chhattisgarh and Assam - have forest cover between33% to 75%.
    • The state having maximum tree cover area is Maharashtra (9, 558 sq. km) followed by J & K (8. 354 sq. km) Total carbon stock in country's forest is 7, 044 million tones, an increase of 103 million tonnes.

 

Forest cover of India

Class Forest cover Very Dense Forest

Area (sq. km) 85,904

Percentage of Geographical Area 2.61

Moderately Dense Forest

315,374.

9.59

Open Forest

300,374

9,14

Total Forest Cover

701,673

21.34

Scrub

41,362

1.26

Non-Forest

2,544,228

77.40

Total Geographical Area

3,287,263

100.00

 


India’s Nature Vegetation

 

No.

Vegetation type

Distribution

Characteristic vegetation

1.

Tropical Wet Evergreen Vegetation

In areas where the annual rainfall is over 250 cm and the average annual humidity exceeds 77 per cent (North-East states, western portions of the Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar).

Lofty, very dense, multilayered forest with mesosphytic evergreens, e.g., bamboos, ebony, rose- wood, champa, toon, jamun, mesa, white cedar, mahogony.

2.

Tropical Semi-Evergreen Vegetation

Found in regions where the annual rainfall is between 200-250 cm and the humidity approaches 75% (Upper Assam, lower eastern Himalayas, Orissa, the Andaman and Nicobar islands & Western Coast).

Evergreen trees mixed with deciduous ones, less dense but more gregarious e.g., aini, semul, gutel, kadam, irul, thorny bamboo, rosewood, Kusum, hollock bonsum, white cedar, Indian chestnut, champa, mango, bamboos etc.

3.

Tropical Dry Evergreen Vegetation

In areas where the mean rainfall is about 100 cm, mostly from north-east monsoon, the mean annual humidity is 75%, and the mean annual temperature is \[28\text{ }{}^\circ \]C (Tamil Nadu coast).

Short statured trees, with complete canopy, coriaceous leaved trees of short boles, no canopy layer differentiation, e.g., khirmi, jamun, kokko, toddy palm, tarrina, ritha, neem etc.

4.

Tropical Moist Deciduous Vegetation (Also known as monsoon forest)

In areas having moderate rainfall of 100- 200 cm, a mean annual temperature of about \[27\text{ }{}^\circ \]C, and an average relative humidity of 60 to 75% (Western Ghats, Odisha, eastern coastal plains, and Himalayan foothills).

Trees which shed their leaves during spring & early summer season, very useful forests because they yield valuable timber & several other forest products, heavily buttressed trees, shrubby undergrowth with patches of bamboos, climbers & canes, e.g. sal, teak, sandalwood, siris, palas, mahua, sisam, amia etc.

5.

Tropical Dry Deciduous Vegetation

In areas where rainfall is less than 150 cm and dry period is relatively long (eastern Rajasthan, Kathiawar, rain shadow area of the Deccan plateau, Central India).

Trees which grow relativity shorter then the tropical moist deciduous trees closed & uneven canopy. Examples include teak, sal, bijasal, palas, khair, tendu, rosewood, anjar etc.

6.

Tropical Thorny Vegetation

Mostly prevalent in areas having very low rainfall, i.e., 50 cm to 75 cm, the annual mean temperature between \[25\text{ }{}^\circ \]C and \[30{}^\circ \]C, and the annual humidity less than 50% (Kutchh, Saurashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Upper Ganga plains and the Deccan plateau).

Open stunted forest breaking down into xerophytic bush, e.g., babul, accasia, Senegal, ber, khair, ak, neem, Cactii etc.

7.

Sub-Tropical Vegetation

Found at 1,000-2000 m altitude in eastern and western Himalayas, and drier areas of Kashmir.

Luxurious forests of evergreen species. Eg. - Oak, chestnut, ash, birch, pine, sal, chir pine, oak, wild olives.

8.

Himalayan Dry Temperate

In the inner dry ranges of the Himalayas where precipitation is below 10 cm. (Ladakh Lahul,

Predominantly coniferous forests with xerophytic shrubs, e.g., chilgoza, deodar, oak, maple, ash,

9.

Himalayan or Montane/ Mountain Moist Temperate Vegetation

In the temperate eastern and western Himalayas, between 1,500 m and 3,300 m (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Darjeeling).

Broad leaved evergreens mixed with dominant coniferous species, generally 30 to 50 m high, open forest with shrubby undergrowth, e.g., deodar, spruce, maple, ash, pine, fir, beach, etc.

10.

Himalayan or Montane/ Mountain Wet Temperate Vegetation

Found between 1,800 m and 3,000 m of altitude (eastern Himalayas, Nilgiris, the Aruiamalai, Paini hills of South India, Sikkim, Nagaland, hills of West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh) where average rainfall is between 150 cm and 300 cm. & humidity is over 80%.

Evergreen forests, short-boleds branchy trees, dense and rounded leaves. Examples include oak, magnolia, chilauni, birch, plum, deodar, laurel and maple.

11.

Sub-Alpine and Alpine Vegetation

Above 2,900 m of altitude in the eastern Himalayas and above 3,500 m of altitude in the western Himalayas and extends up to the snowline.

Dwarf shrubs which degenerate into a low evergreen scrubs and into xerophytic vegetation; examples include fir, juniper, pine birch and Rhododendron, spruce.

12.

Littoral or Tidal or Delta or Swamp Vegetation

In and around the tidal creeks and along the deltas of the rivers Ganga, Mahanadi, Krishna and Godavari.

Evergreen trees having profuse growth and stiltlike roots, e.g., sundari in the great Sunderban delta, Rhiwphora, nipa fruiticans (a type of palm), palms, keora, amur etc.

 

Mangroves

  • Mangroves are very specialized forest ecosystem of tropical and subtropical region of the world bordering sheltered sea-coasts.

 

Mangroves of India

State

Mangrove

East coast

West Bengal

Sunderbans

Orissa

Mahanadi, Bhitarkanika

Andhra Pradesh

Godavari, Krishna

Tamil Nadu

Pichavaram, Muthupet, Point Calimere

West coast

Gujarat

Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Khambat

Goa

Goa

Karnataka

Coondapur

Maharashtra

Achra/Ratnagiri

Kerala

Vembanad

Other mangroves

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Andaman islands & Nicobar islands

 

  • They occur all along the Indian coastline in the sheltered estuaries, tidal creeks, backwaters, salt marshes and mudflats, covering a total area of 0.67 m ha.
  • Mangroves are dominated by salt tolerant halophytic plants of diverse structure, and are invaluable marine nurseries for a large variety of fish and other marine fauna.
  • Mangroves have a dense network of aerial roots which help to aerate the root system and anchor the tree.
  • In world’s total mangrove vegetation, India's share stands at 3 %.
  • The mangrove cover in India has increased by 112 km2 following acute conservation in sunderbans and Wildlife comprises animals, birds, and insects living in forests.

 

State/UT

Forest cover as Percentage of geographical area (%)

Andhra Pradesh

16.86

Arunachal Pradesh

80.50

Assam

35.28

Bihar

37.27

Chhattisgarh

41.18

Delhi

11.88

Goa

59.94

Gujarat

7.46

Haryana

3.64

Himachal Pradesh

26.37

Jammu & Kashmir

10.14

Jharkhand

28.82

Karnatka

18.87

Kerala

44.52

Madhya Pradesh

25.21

Lakshadeep

84.96

Puduchery

10.43

State/UT

Forest Cover as Percentage of Geographical Area (%)

Maharashtra

16.46

Manipur

76.54

Meghalya

77.02

Mizoram

90.68

Nagaland

80.33

Punjab

3.50

Rajasthan

4.70

Sikkim

47.34

Tamil Nadu

18.16

Tripura

76.04

Uttar Pradesh

5.95

West Bengal

14.64

Andman & Nicobar

81.51

Chandigarh

14.72

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

42.97

Daman & Diu

5.49

Uttrakhand

45.80

 



 

WILDLIFE

 

 

  • Wildlife comprises animals, birds and insects living in forests.
  • With large regional variations in physiography, climate and edaphic types. Indian forests offer a wide range of habitat types, which is responsible for a large variety of wild life in India.
  • Elephant is the largest Indian mammal, which only a few centuries ago, was found in large numbers in vast forest tracts of India.
  • The one-horned rhinoceros, India’s second largest mammal was once found throughout the Indo-Gangetic Plain as far west as Rajasthan. The number of this mammal has drastically decreased and now there are less than 1,500 rhinoceros in India, confined to the restricted locations in Assam and West Bengal.
    • Rhinoceros are protected in Kaziranga and Manas sanctuaries of Assam and the Jaldapara sanctuary of West Bengal.
  • The wild buffalo is found in Assam and in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh.
  • The gaur or the Indian bison is one of the largest existing bovine and is found in the forests of Central India.
  • There are about 3,000 tigers in India mainly found in the forests of eastern Himalayan foothills and in parts of the peninsular India.
    • The number of Cheetahs had fallen to less than two hundred until Successful breeding programme in the Gir sanctuary in Gujarat resulted in some recovery.
  • The arboreal clouded leopard is found in northern Assam while the Black Panther is widely distributed predator.
  • Black and Sloth Bear are found at high altitudes in the northwestern and central Himalayas.
  • Yak, the ox of snows is largely found in Ladakh and is tamed to be used as a draught animal.
  • Stag or barasingha is found in Assam and Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Munjac or barking deer are found extensively in the lower wooded slopes of the Himalayas and in the forests of southern India.
  • The kastura or the musk deer, much sought after for its musk pod, live in the birch woods in the higher forests of the Himalayas.
  • 1936, the first National Park in India was created and named as Hailey National Park now called jim Corbett (Uttarakhand).
    • Thamin is a pretty deer found in Manipur.
  • India is extremely rich in bird life. There are about 2,000 species of birds in India.
  • Although most of the bird has their origin in India, a number of them have their source in other areas. Some birds such as ducks, cranes, swallows, ant flycatchers migrate from central Asia to the wetlands of Bharatpur every winter. Recently, some migratory birds have been seen near Mathura.

National Park: A reserved area meant for preserving its natural vegetation, wildlife and natural beauty.

Sanctuary: A reserved area meant for preservation and development of endangered species.

Biosphere: Multipurpose protected areas to preserve genetic diversity in representative ecosystems.

 

As of July 2015, there were 105 National Parks.

Number of wildlife Sanctuaries - 531

Number of Biosphere Reserves - 18.

 

Preservation of Wildlife

  • The fast dwindling forest cover in India has adversely affected wildlife in the country.
  • The number of several species has been drastically reduced, some are endangered species, and the others are on the verge of extinction while some of them have already disappeared.
  • Indian Board for Wildlife was constituted in 1952. The main purpose of the board was to advise the Government on the means of conservation and protection of wildlife, construction of national parks, sanctuaries and zoological gardens as well as promoting public awareness regarding conservation of wildlife.
  • The Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972 is a comprehensive low which gives firm status to the national parks and sanctuaries and other

 


Distinction  between National Park, Sanctuary and  Biosphere Reserve

National Park

Sanctuary

Biosphere Reserve

•    Habitat for particular wild animal species

•    Generally species-oriented such as citrus, pitcher plant. etc.

•    Ecosystem-oriented  i.e. All forms of life

•    The general size range is 0.04 to 3162 sq. km.

•    The general size range is 0.61 to 7818 sq. km.

•    The general size range is over 5670 sq. km

•    Boundaries fixed by legislation 

 

•    Boundaries fixed by legislation

•    Except the buffer zone, no interference

•    Boundaries are not sacrosanct

 

 

•    Limited biotic interference

•    Except the buffer zone,

•    Tourism permissible

•    Tourism permissible

•    no biotic interference

•    Research and Scientific management lacking

•    Research and Scientific management lacking

•    Tourism normally not permissible

•    So far no gene pool and

•    So far no gene pool and conservation given

•    Managed attention

 

  • Endangered species of plants and animals have been brought under the purview of this act. Project Tiger, one of the premier conservation efforts in the country- was launched in April, 1973. It is a centrally financed scheme under which 40 tiger reserves have been set up.
  • As a result of the tiger project the tiger population is now well over 3000. A tiger crisis cell has also been formed in the Ministry of Environment and Forest.
  • The National Wildlife Action Plan adopted in 1983 provides the framework and programme for conservation of wildlife.
  • A Central Zoo Authority has been set up for the proper management of zoological parks in the country. It coordinates the activities of over 200 zoos and also supervises the exchange of animals.

 

Endangered Species Projects

Project Tiger: The sort of India has taken a pioneering initiative for consuming tiger by launching the 'Project Tiger’ is 1973. India is home to 70% of tigers in the world. In 2014, there were 2,226 tigers. Statewise, Karnataka has the highest number of tigers (406) followed by 340 in Uttarakhand, 308 in Madhya Pradesh, 229 in Tamil Nadu. The project tiger aims to foster as exclusives tiger agenda in the core area of tiger reserves, which an inclusive people oriented agenda in the buffer. The largest tiger reserve is the Nagarjunsagar- Srisailam tiger reserve of Andhra Pradesh which covers the area of 3538 km2.

Project Elephant: Project elephant, a centrally sponsored scheme was launched in February 1992 to provide surgical and technical support to major elephant bearing states in the country for protection of elephants, their habitats and corridor.

The project is being implemented in 13 states/UT's viz. Andhra Kerala Meghlaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Tamilnadu, Utttranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. There are 28 notified elephant reserve in India covering approximately 60,000 89 km area.

The Singhbhum Elephant Reserve, the first Elephant Reserve of India was created in 2001 under the Elephant project in Jharkhand.

India’s first exclusive hospital for Elephant will come up in

Kerala.

Project Snow Leopard: This project was lunched to safe guard and conserve India's unique natural habitats of high altitude wildlife population and their habitats by promoting conservation through participatory policies and actions. This project was drifted by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. It was launched in January. There are nearly 750 snow leopards in the country.

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) or Siberian

Crane: This memorandum came into effect 1st July, 1993 and was amended is January, 1999. This memorandum was focuses on conserving the Siberian crane as one of these rarest crane species. India had signed the MOU on 13th Dec. 1998.

Siberian crane are migratory visitors to India in winter season.

MOU for Marine Twotle: Major threats to marine turtle include unexceptionable exploitation, distinction of resting and feeding habitats and incidental morality is fishing operations.

The objectives of this memorandum are conservation and management of Marine turtles and their habitats. India had signed this memo random on 20 February, 2007.

MOU for Dugong: The dugong is a seagrass dependent

Marine’s mammal of tropical and subtropical coastal water.

The dugong are vulnarable to human related influences due to their life history. Dugong is commonly known as sea cow.

In India, these are found is Indian waters. From Gujarat to Andaman and Nicobar Islands India had signed mou for Dugong on 28 May, 2008

 


Major Wildlife Reserves

1. Jammuand Kashmir

Raksham Chitkul

Keladevi

Sanctuaries

National Parks

Renuka

Kumbhalgarh

Askot

Dachigam

Rupi Bhabha

Mount Abu

Binsar

Hemis

Sechu Tuan Nala

Nahargarh

Govind Pashu

Kishtwar

Shikari Devi

National Chambal

Kedarnath

Sanctuaries

Shilli

National Garhial

Sonanadi

Baltal

Simbalbara

Phulwari

 

Changthang

Taira

Ramgarh Bundi

10. Madhya Pradesh

Gulmarg

Tirthan

Sawai Mansingh

National Parks

Hirpora

Tundah

Shergarh

Bandhavgarh

Hokarsar

 

Sita Mata

Dinosaur Fossils

Kanji

3. Punjab

Sunda Mata

 

Karakoram

Sanctuaries

Todgarh Raoli

Ghati

Lachipora

Abohar

TalChapper

Kanha

Limber

Harike Lake

Van Vihar

Madhav

Nandini

Bir Gurdialpura

 

Panna

Overa

Bir Bunnerheri

8. Uttar Pradesh

Pench

Overa-Aru

Bir Motibagh

 

Sanjay

Ramnagar

4. Haryana

Dudwa

Satpura

Surinsar-Mansar

Sultanpur

Sanctuaries

Van Vihar

Tongri

Sanctuaries

 

Sanctuaries

2. Himachal Pradesh

Bir Shikargarh

 

Achanakmar

National Parks

Chautala

Chandra Prabha

Badankhoh

Great Himalayan

 

Chilla

Bagdara

Pin Valley

5. Delhi

Hastinapur

Barnawapara

Sanctuaries

Indira Priyadarshini

Kaimur

Bhairamgarh

 

 

 

 

Bandii

 

Kateraniaghat

Bori

Chail

6. Chandigarh

Kishanpur

Gandhi Sagar

Churdhar

Sukhna

Maahavir Swamy

Ghatigaon

Daranghati

 

National Chambal

Gomardah

Darlaghat

7. Rajasthan

Nawabganj

Karera

Gamgul Siahbehi

National Parks

Ranipur

Ken Gharial

Gobind Sagar and Naina Devi

Desert

Samaspur

Kuno-Palpur

Kais

Keoladeo

Sohagabarwa

Kheoni

Kalatop & Khajjiar

Ranthambore

 

Narsingarh

Kanawar

Sariska

 

National Chambal

Khokhan

Sanctuaries

9. Uttaranchal

Noradehi

Kugti

Bandh Bartha

National Parks

Pachmarhi

Lippa Asrang

Bassi

Corbett

Palpur

Majathal

Bhensrodgarh

Gangotri

Pamed Wild Buffalo

Manali

Darah

Govind

Panpatha

Naina Devi

Jaisamand

Nanda Devi

Pench

Nargu

Jamwa Ramgarh

Rajaji

Fensatallite

Sailana Florican

Udaipur

16. Gujarat

Jorpokhri

Sanjay (Dubrj)

 

Vansda

Lothian Island

Sardarpur Florican

14. Jharkhand

Gir

Mahananda

Samarsot

Dalma

Marine (Gulf of Kutch)

Narendrapur

Singhori (Sindhari)

Gautam Buddha

Velavadar/Blackbuck

Pamadhan

Sitanadi

Hazaribagh

 

Ramnabagan

Sone Gharial

Koderma

Sanctuaries

Raiganj

Tamor Pingia

Lawalong

Balaram-Ambaji

Sajnakhali

Udanti Wild Buffalo

Mahuadanr

Barda

Senchal

11. Chhattisgarh

Palamau

Dhumkhal

 

Indravati

Parasnath

Gir

19. Sikkim

Kanger Ghati

Topchanchi

Jambughoda

National Parks

 

 

Jessore

Khangchendzonga

12. Odisha

I5. Maharashtra

Khijadiya

Sanctuaries

National Parks

National Parks

Kutch Desert

Fambong Lho

Bhitar Kanika

Gugamal

Marine (Gulf of Kutch)

Kyongasia Alpine

Simlipal

Nawegaon

NalSarovar

Maenam

Sanctuaries

Sanjay Gandhi

Narayan (Chenkars)

Shingba Rhododendron

Badrama

Tadoba

Sarovar

20. Manipur

Baisipalli

Sanctuaries

Paniya

Keibul Lamjao

Balukhand Konark

Andhari

Purna

Siroi

Bhitarkanika

Aner Dam

Rampara

Sanctuary

Chandaka Dampara

Bhimashankar

Ratanmahal

Yagoupokpi Lokchao

Chilka Lake (Nalaban)

Bor

Shoolpaneshwar

 

Debrigarh

Chandoli .

Wild Ass

21. Meghalaya

Hadgarh

Chaprala

 

Balphakram

Karlapat

Dhakna Kolkaz

17. Goa, Daman and

Nokrek

Khalasuni

Gandhari

Diu

Sanctuary

Kotgarh

Gautala Autramghat

Bhagwan Mahavir

Bhagmara

Kuldiha

Great Indian Bustard

Sanctuaries

Nongkhyllem

Lakhari Valley

Jaikwadi

Bhagwan Mahavir

Siju

Satkosia Gorge

Kalsubai Harishchandra

Cotigao

2 2. Arunachal Pradesh

Simlipal Sunabeda

Katepurna Koyna

18. West Bengal National Parks

Mouling Namdapha

Ushakothi

Malvan Marine

Neora Valley

 

 

Melghat

 

Sanctuaries

 

 

Singalila

 

13. Bihar

Nagzira

Sundarban

D'Ering Memorial

Valmiki

Nandur Madmeshwar

 

Dibang Valley

 

 

Sanctuaries

 

Sanctuaries

Painganga

Buxa

Eagle nest

Bhimbandh

Phansad

Bibnutibhushan

Itanagar

Chandra Prabha

Radhangiri

Betuadahary

Kamlang

Kabar

Sagareshwar

Ballavpur

Kane

Kaimur

Tansa

Chapramari

Mehao

Nakti Dam

Wainganga

Gorumara

Pakhui

Rajgir

Yawal

Hallidav Island

Sessa Orchid

23. Mizoram

Kawai

Talakaveri

Sanctuaries

Murlen

Kinnerasani

 

Barren Island

Phawngpui

Kolleru

29. Kerala

Battimalve Island

Sanctuaries

Krishna

Eravikulam

Benett Island

Dampa

Lanjamadugu

Periyar

Bluff Island

Khawnglung

Manjira

Silent Valley

Bondoville Island

Ngengpui

Nagarjunasagar-Srisailam

 

Buchaan Island

 

Neelapattu

Sanctuaries

Cinque Island

24. Nagaland

Pakhal

Aralam

Crocodile (Lohabrrack)

Nitangki

Papikonda

Chimony

Defence Island

Pulebatze

Pocharam

Chinnar

East (Inglis) Island

Fakim

Pranahita

Idukki

East Island

 

Pulicat

Neyyar

Flat Island

25. Tripura

Rollapadu

Parambikulam

Interview Island

Charilam

Srilanka Malleswara

Peechi Vazhani

James Island

Sepahijala

Siwaram

Peppara

Kyd Island

Rishna

 

Periyar

Landfall Island

Bison

28. Karnataka

Shendurney

Narcondum Island

Clouded Leopard

National Parks

Thattekkad Bird

North Reef Island

 

Anshi

Wynad

 

 

 

 

Paget Island

26. Assam

Bandipur

30. Tamil Nadu

 

Kaziranga

Bannerghatta

Guindy

Pitman Island

Nambiar

Kudremukh

Indira Gandhi

Point Island

Dibru-Saikhowa

Nagarhole

or Anamalai

Ranger Island

Sanctuaries

 

Sanctuaries

Fleet Island

Dipor Beel

Sanctuaries

Kalakad

Roper Island

Garampani

Arabithittu

Karikili

Ross Island

Laokhowa

Bhadra

Mudumalai

Sandy Island

Manas

Rangaswamy- Temple

Mukurthi

Shearme Island

Nameri

Biligiri

Mundanthurai

Sir Hugh Rose Island

Orang

Bramhagiri

Point Call mere

South Brother Island

Pabha

Cauvery

Pulicat

South Reef Island

Pobitara

Dandeli

Srivilliputhur

South Sentinel Island

Sonai Rupai

Ghataprabha

Vedantangal

Spike Island

27. Andhra Pradesh

Melkote Temple Mukambika

Vettangudi

Swamp Island

National Parks

Nugu

31. The Andaman Islands

Table (Delgarno) Island

Shri Venkataswara

Pushpagiri

National Parks

Table (Excelsior) Island

Sanctuaries

Ranganthittu

Campbell Bay

Talabaicha Island

Coringa

Ranebennur

Galathea

Temple Island

Eturnagaram

Sharavathi Valley

Wandur

Tillonchang Island

Gundlabrahmeswaram

Shettihally

Mount Harriet Island

West Island

Koundinya

Someswara

Saddle Peak

 

 

 

 

Biosphere Reserves of India

 

 

S. No.

Name

Type

Key Funna

Area (In Km2)

1.

Nilgiri Biosphere \[\Delta \]

Western Ghat

Nilgiri Tahr,

5520

 

Reserve, Tamilnadu, Kerala Karnataka

 

Lion talked macaque

 

2.

Nanda Devi, Utrakhand \[\Delta \]

Western Himalyas Coast

5860

3.

Gulf of Mannar, Tamilnadu \[\Delta \]

East Himalayas

Dugong

10500

4.

Nokrek, Meghalya \[\Delta \]

Gangatic Delta

Red Panda

820

5.

Sunderbans, West Bengal \[\Delta \]

East Himalayas

Royal Bengal Tiger

9630

6.

Manas, Assam

Deccan Peniusula

Red Panda

2837

7.

Simlipal, Odissa \[\Delta \]

 

Royal Bengal Tiger,

4374

 

 

Eastern Himalayas Semi-Arid

Ganv, Wild elephant

 

8.

Dihang - dibang, Arunachal Pradesh

Maikals Hills

5112

9.

Panchmarhi Biosphere \[\Delta \]

Desert

Flying sq.uirrel

4981.72

10.

Amerkantak, Madhya Padesh Chhatisgarh \[\Delta \]

Western Himalayas

Giant Sq.uirrel

3835

11.

Rann of Kutch, Gujarat

 

Indian wild ass

12454

12.

Pin valley national park

East Himalayas

Show Leopased

7770

 

(Cold Desert), Himachal Pradesh

Western Glats

 

 

13.

Khangchendzonga, Sikkim

 

Red Panda

2620

14.

Agasthyamalai Biosphere resurve, Kerala, Tamilnadu

Islands

Nilgiri Tahr Elephants

1828

15.

Nicobar Biosphere Reserve, A & Nicobar, Islands \[\Delta \]

East Himalayas

Saltwater Crocodile

885

 

 

Eastern Ghats

 

 

16.

Dibru-Saikhowa, Assam

Catchment area of Ken River

Golden Langur

765

17.

Seshachalam Hills, Andhra Pradesh

 

 

 

18.

Panna, Madhya Pradesh

 

Tiger, Chital, Chinkara,

543

 

 

 

Sembhar and Sloth bear

 

\[\Delta \]Biosphere Reserves listed in UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

 

Specialities of National Park and Sanctuary

•      Gir National Park in Gujarat is the only existent habitat for the nearly extinct Asiatic Lions in India.

•      The Kaziranga Sanctuary in Assam is a major habitat of the endangered Rhinoceros.

•      Periyar in Kerala is famous for the the wild Elephants

•      Dachigam National Park is natural habitat of Kashmiri Stag.

•      Nandankanan national park in Orissa serves as the natural habitat of white tigers.

•      The Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park in Darjeeling (West Bengal) has undertaken Project Red Panda with a view to conserving this species.

•      The entire Little Rann of Kutch in Gujarat is known as the “Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary”.  

•      Bhitarkanika in Orissa is a hot-spot of biodiversity. It’s home to largest population of giant salt water crocodile in India.

•      Gahirmatha, the only marine wildlife sanctuary of Orissa, is the most suitable natural place for Olive Ridley sea turtles’ for mating and nesting.

•      The National Chambal Sanctuary is famous for the rare gangetic dolphin and also for magar (crocodile) and gharial (alligator).

•      Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary in Karnataka is a favourite abode for birds

•      Pakke Tiger reserve in East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh has won the ‘India Biodiversity Award 2016.

 

National Parks by the largest area

Wildlife Sanctuaries by the largest area

National Parks

State

Area (sq. km)

Wildlife Sanctuary

State

Area (sq. km)

1.   Hemis

Jammu & Kashmir   

4,100.00

1.    Great Indian Bustard

Maharashtra

8,496.44

2.   Desert

Rajasthan

3,162.00

2.    Kachchh Desert

Gujarat

7,506.22

3.   Namdapha

Arunachal Pradesh

1,807.82

3.    Karakoram

Jammu & Kashmir

5,000.00

4.   Khangchendzonga

Sikkim

1,784.00

4.    Wild Ass

Gujarat

4,953.71

5.   Gangotri

Uttarakhand

1,552.00

5.    Dibang

Arunachal Pradesh

4,149.00

 

Western Ghats

The Western Ghats (or Sahyadri) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the 8 “hottest hotspots” of biological diversity in the world. The Western Ghats stretches into 6 states - Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Gujarat, Goa & Maharashtra. It hosts a large list of exceptional endemic species, the International Union for Conservation (IUCN) lists 5,000 vascular plant species, 228 freshwater fish species, 179 amphibians, 157 reptiles, 508 birds & 139 mammal species, some of the very rare species include the Great Indian Hornbill, Lion-Tailed Macaque, Travancore Turtles & Nilgiri Martens.

In recent times 2 panels have been set up, under Madhav Gadgil & Kasturirangan, for protection of the Western Ghats.


 

Agriculture

 

 

Agriculture includes raising of crops from the land, animal husbandry, agroforestry & pisciculture. India is an agriculturally important country. Two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food that we consume and raw material for various industries.

 

Overview of Agricultural Sector: Highlights (Source: - Economic Survey 2016-17)

  • Share of agriculture in total GVA is 17.32%.
  • Target of 4 % for agriculture & allied sectors in the 12th
  • Growth registered in 2016-17 is 4.1%. (First Advance Estimate).
  • During 2014-15, banks have disbursed. Rs. 8,40,643 crore (provisional) credit to the agriculture sector, against a target of Rs.8,00,000 crore.
  • In the budget for the year 2015-16 the target of agricultural credit was raised to 8.5 lakh crore. In the subsequent budgets, 2016-17 and 2017-18 it has been further raised to lakh crore and 10 lakh crore respectively.
  • India’s agricultural exports were valued at US $ 32.09 billion in 2015-16.
    • India ranks first in milk production, accounting for 17% of world production.
  • Initiative for Agriculture and allied sector in the budget 2017-18
    • Opened the door for market reforms in agriculture
    • Increased funding for crop insurance
  • Allocation of Rs.20,000 crore for the long term irrigation fund under NABARD under “per drop, more crop” initiative
  • 5000 crore allocated for setting up of a dedicated micro- irrigation fund under NABARD under “Har Khet Ko Pani” scheme.
  • 8000 crore for dairy development fund under NABARD
  • Proposed to expand the coverage of electronic National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) from the current 250 markets to 585 mandis
  • Raised the budgetary allocation for Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana by 42.1% and reduced the allocation for Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana by 12%
  • 2nd Advanced Production Estimates of major crops during 2016-17 (released by the Departments of Agriculture & Cooperation) is as under: -

(A)   Foodgrains           

271.98 MT

·               Rice              

108.84 MT

·               Wheat           

96.64 MT

·               Coarse Cereals

44.34 MT

·               Maize

26.15MT

·               Pulses

22.14MT

·               Tur

4.23 MT

·               Gram

9.12MT

(B) Oilseeds

33.60MT

·               Soyabean

14.13MT

·               Groundnut

8.47 MT

(C) Cotton        

32.51 million bales

(D) Sugarcane

309.98 MT

 

Diagram - Sectoral Share (%) in GVA at factor cost at current prices 2016-17

 

 

 

 

Land use Pattern

  • Cropped area in the year under consideration is called Net Sown Area.
  • The net sown area occupies the highest category (above 55% of the reporting area) in Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Kerala.
    • Medium category (30-55%) in Karnataka, Guiarat, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Goa and Assam.
    • Low category (below 30%) in Himachal Pradesh,
  • Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.

 

Area sown more than once: This area is used to grow more than one crop in a year. This accounts for 34.3% of the net sown area and 16.6 % of the total reporting area of the country.

This type of area comprises land with rich fertile soil and regulars water supply.

Forests: It is the area which the govt. has identified & demarcated for forest growth.

Land not available for cultivation: This class consists of two types of land (i) Land put to non-agricultural uses (ii) barren and unculturable waste.

 

Permanent pastures and other grazing land: It amounts to about 3.45% (i.e. 11.8 mha) of the total reporting area. The area presently under pastures is not sufficient keeping in view the large population of livestock in the country.

Land under miscellaneous tree crops and groves: It includes all cultivable land which is not included under net area sown, but is put to some agricultural use.

Culturable Wasteland: It includes all lands available for cultivation, but not cultivated for one reason or the other.

 

Types of Farming

India is a vast country and had various climatic patters and geographical condition, so these are different types of farming.

  1. Subsistence Farming: In this type of farming farmer produce for his own consumption. These is no surplus left for sale. This involves cultivation of food crops like rice, wheat, pulses etc.
  2. Commercial Farming: In this farming, food crops produced specifically for sale in the market by using improved variety of seeds and machinery. Normally it is characterised by large farms and only one crop is grown.

Advance machinery, chemical fertilizers, hybrid seeds and pesticides are used.

Cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, oil seeds, chillies etc. are commercial crops.

  1. Shifting Cultivation: Shifting cultivation means the migratory subsistence farming. Under this system, a plot of land is cultivated for few years and when the crop yield declines the plot of land is changed. Dry paddy, buck wheat, maize, small millets, tobacco & sugarcane are the main crops grown under this type of agriculture. It is known by different names in different parts of the country. It is “Jhumming” in -north eastern states;

‘podu’ in Andhra Pradesh, 'Bewar' in M.P., ‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats.

  1. Mixed Farming: Mixed farming is raising of crops and rearing of cattle, poultry, bee keeping, seri culture etc. on he same cattle or poultry do not need extra expenditure as they thrive on the farm wasters. Livestocks animals Plantation Farming: Predominance of a single crop (only for sale) farming in tropical regions is called
  2. Planation farming: Important crops grown under this type of farming are cotton, tea, rubber, spices, coconuts etc. This farming outlay. Latest knowledge and modern methods of agriculture are used in this farming.
  3. Intensive Agriculture: System of cultivation using large amount of labour and capital with application of fertilizers and insecticides is called intensive agriculture.

Use of high efficiency machinery for planting, cultivating and harvesting as well as latest irrigation equipment.

  1. Extensive Agriculture: System of crop cultivation using small amounts of labour and capital in relation to area of land being farmed. The crop yield in extensive agriculture depends primarily on the natural fertility of the soil, terrain climate and the availability of water.

 

Main crops season in India

Season

Ground is Prepared

Harvest

Major crops of the season

Kharif

In April, May and the seeds are sown in June on arrival of rain.

Beginning of November

Rice, maize, Jowar, bajara,  cotton, jute,

groundnut, pulses etc.

Rabi

By end of October or beginning of November.

April to June

Wheat, barley, peas, gram, oilseeds, tobacco etc.

Zaid

It is summer season crops sown

at beginning of the season in February and March

April and May

Urad, moong, melons, cucumber

 

Wheat is cultivated with high yielding varieties of seeds like Lerma, Rajo, Sonora 63 and 64 (Mexican varieties), Sona 227, Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Chhoti Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, Shera, Heera, Safed Lerma, UP 302, Saran, Champaran and C-l-7 etc.

 

Green Revolution

The term “Green Revolution” is applied to the period from

1967 to 1978. The green revolution started by Dr. Norman

Borlaug in Mexico. Between 1947 and 1967, efforts at achieving food self-sufficiency were not entirely successful.

Population was growing at a much faster rate than good production. This called for drastic action to increase yield.

The action came in the form of the green revolution. The term green revolution is a general one that is applied to successful agricultural experiments in many countries. But it was most successful in India.

 

There were three basic elements in India regarding Green revolution

  • Continued expansion of farming areas.
  • Double cropping of existing farm and

 

12 Components of the Green Revolution

High yield varieties (seeds), irrigation, use of fertilizers, use of insecticide and pesticide, command area development, consolidation of holding, land reform, supply of agricultural credit, rural electrification, rural roads and marketing, farm mechanisation, agricultural universities.

 

Impacts of Green Revolution

Impacts of Green Revolution are as follows

Positive Impact Increase in agricultural production, reduction of the import of foodgrains, capitalistic farming, industrial growth and rural employment.

Negative Impact Inter-crop imbalance, increase in regional imbalance, unemployment due to mechanisation. Increase in inter-regional migration, ecological problems and social conflict between large and small farmers.

Various Revolutions in Agriculture

 

Revolutions

Area

Green Revolution

Agriculture (Food Production)

Yellow Revolution

Oil seeds production (Edible oil)

White Revolution

Milk

Blue Revolution

Fish

Pink Revolution

Shrimp, food processing

Brown Revolution

Coffee/Cocoa

Red Revolution

Meat/Tomato

Golden Revolution

Fruits/Apple/Honey/Horticulture

Grey Revolution

Fertilizers

Silver Revolution

Eggs/Poultry

Golden Fibre

Jute

Silver Fibre

Cotton

 

MAJOR CROPS

Indian crops can be divided into following categories:

  • Food crops: Rice, wheat, maize, millets-jowar, bajra etc.
  • Cash crops: Cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, groundnut etc.
  • Plantation crops: Tea, Coffee, spices, coconut, rubber etc.
    • Horticulture crops: Apple, mango, banana, citrus etc.

 

 

 

Crops

Temp. (\[0{}^\circ \]C)

Rainfall (cm)

Soil

Distribution

Cash Crops

 

 

 

 

Cotton (Gossypium)

21-30

50-75

Black soil

Gujarat, M.P., Kernataka, Maharashta, Punjab

Jute (Corchorus Capsularis)

24-35

125-200

Sandy or clayed loams, deep rich

West Bengal Odisha Bihar Assam Meghalaya

Sugarcane (saccnarum officinarum)

20-26

75-150

Loamy soil

Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Karnataka

Tobacco (Nicotiana)

15-38

50-100

Friable sandy soil

Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka

Food Crops

 

 

 

 

Rice (oryza sativa)

24-27

150

Clayed and loamy soil

West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhara Pradesh, Assam Odisha, Uttar Punjab, Pradesh Telangana, Chhattisgarh

Wheat (triticum)

10-15

75

Light, sandy, clayed loamy soil

Uttar Pradesh Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan

Jowar (Sorghum)

27-32

30-65

Black clayed loamy soil

Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh

Bajra (Penisetu Typhoidum)

25-35

40-50

Loamy soil

Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat

Plantation Crops

 

 

 

 

Tea (Camellia Thea)

24-30

150-250

Loamy forest soil

Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam

Coffee (coffea)

16-28

150-250

Friable forest loamy soils

Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu

Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis)

25-35

300

Loamy soils

Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

 


Spices (plantation crop)

•      India is the second largest producer of pepper.

•      India is the largest producer of ginger, cardamom and arecanut.

•      India is the third largest producer of coconut next to Philippines and Indonesia.

•      Kerala leads in the production of pepper, cardamom, ginger, arecanut and coconut among Indian states.

•      Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of chillies and turmeric.

•      India is the largest producer, processor, consumer and exporter of cashew nut in the world.

 

India’s Ranks in Major Commodity

Rice

2

Wheat

2

Millets

1

Tea

2

Sugarcane

2

Jute

1

Silk

2

Banana

1

Mangoes

1

Apple

3

Cotton

2

Buffalo Milk

1

Pulses

1

 

Fisheries/pisciculture

  • Fish catch in India is of two types - marine fisheries and inland fisheries.
  • India is the third largest producer of fish and second largest producer of inland fishing in the world.
  • It accounts for about one per cent of the total agricultural production in India.
  • About 75% of marine fish landings are on the west coast and only 25% in the east coast.
  • Important fish caught along the coast are shark, sardine, herring, Mumbai duck, fly fish ribbon fish and Mackerrel.
  • West Bengal is the largest producer of fish in India and is the largest producer of inland fish (31%) also.
  • Kerala has about 85 % of India's total processing facilities and processes the largest amount of fish in the country.
  • India exports about 8% of the total fish production. Sri Lanka alone purchases 80% of our fish and fish products.
    • Sasson Dock in Mumbai is a major fishing harbour.
  • There are six major fishing harbours and 38 minor fishing harbours. The major harbours are -Cochin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Roy Chowk, Paradip and Sasson dock.
    • The Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and
  • Engineering Training is at Kochi.
  • The Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fisheries is in the Bengaluru.

 

Livestock and Dairy Farming

Livestock includes domestic animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, horses, ponies, donkeys, camels, pigs etc. India’s Dairy Farming includes a class of agricultural enterprise for long-term production of milk which is processed for eventual sale of a dairy product. India is endowed with largest livestock population in the world. It accounts for about 57.3% of the world's buffalo population and 14.7% of the cattle population.

 

Different Breeds of Animals

Milch Breeds of Cattle Gir, Sindhi, Red Sindhi, Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Deoni

Draught Breeds of Cattle Nagori, Bauchaur, Malvi Hallikar, Ponwar, Siri, Bargur.

Dual Purposse Breeds of Cattle Tharparkar, Haryana, Mewati, Kankrej, Rath, Nimari, Dangi, Ongole.

Goats Breeds Angora, Pashmina, Barabari, Marwari, Mehsana Beetal, Kathiawari and Zaiwadi.

Buffaloes Breeds Murrah, Jafarabadi, Shruti, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Nili Ravi, Bhadawari.

Horses and Ponies Breeds Marwari, Kathiawari, Manipuri, Bhutani, Spiti and Chummarti.

 

Sericulture

Sericulture refers to the rearing of the silk worms for the raw silk production. Silk is a protein produced form the salivary gland of silk worms.

  • Important features of Indian sericulture are as follows.
  • It is a agro-based labour intensive, export oriented and cottage industry.
  • Silk is exported to more than 80 countries like USA, UK, Italy, UAE, Saudi Arabia etc.
  • India enjoys the unique distinction of being the only country in the world to produce all the four varieties of silk such as Mulberry, Tasar, Eri and Muga.
  • Muga is the monopoly of India. India ranks second in the world after China in Silk production.

 

Horticulture

Horticulture is a comprehensive term and includes fruits vegetables, spices, floriculture and coconut. Some of the most important crops grown in India as a part of the horticulture sector are: mango, cashewnut, apple, banana, orange, grape, peach, pear, apricot, strawberry and vegetables. Some important information regarding these fruits is given in the table.

 


Fruits Crops and their Favourable Climate, Distribution and Relevant Information

 

Fruit Crops

Favorable Climate

Distribution

         Relevant Information

Apple

Temperate fruit crop- It requires average temperature from \[21{}^\circ C\] to 4 C during the active growing season, 100-125 cm rainfall well distributed throughout the growing season. These conditions are found on the hill slopes at altitudes arranging from 1500-2700 m above sea level.

Kullu and Shimla in Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir valley and hilly areas of Uttarakhand.

Loamy soil, rich in organic matter, free from water logging are suitable for apple cultivation.

Banana

Primarily a tropical and sub-tropical crop requiring average temperature of \[20{}^\circ C\] to \[30{}^\circ C\] throughout the growing period and rainfall fairly above 150 cm.

Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra are the two main producers

India is the largest producer of banana in the world.

Mango

It is native of monsoon land and is grown in areas with temperature \[20{}^\circ C\] to \[30{}^\circ C\] and rainfall 75 cm to 250 cm.

Uttar Pradesh. Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, Kerala, Tamil Nadu are the major producers.

India is the largest producer of mango and contributes 54 % of the world production of mango.

Grapes

It requires long summer, short winter and moderately fertile well drained soil.

The major producing States are Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh. Jammu and Kashmir.

In Northern India, the plant gives only one crop during summer, but in South India, the plant grows throughout the year, one in March, April and the other in August and September.

Strawberry

It requires above \[16{}^\circ C\] temperature during its growing season and lots of water because its fields are sub-merges under 10 cm of fresh and slowly moving water for atleast three months.

The main producers are the hilly areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand.

Water retaining fertile soil is most suitable.

 

Floriculture

Government of India has identified floriculture as a sunrise industry and accorded it 100% export oriented status. Owing to steady increase in demand of flower, floriculture has become one of the important commercial trades in agriculture. Floriculture products mainly consist of cut flowers, pot plants, cut foilage, seeds bulbs, tubers, rooted cuttings and dried flowers or leaves.



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