question_answer1) Categories these photographs by the functions of political parties they illustrate. Find one photograph or news clipping from your own area for each of the functions listed above. [NCERT]
|(a) Activists of BJP Mahila Morcha demonstrating against hike in prices of onions and LPG in Visakhapatnam|
|(b) Minister distributes Rs. One lakh cheque to the hooch victims family at their houses.|
|(c) Activists of CPI (M), CPI, OOP and JD (S) take out a rally in Bhubaneswar to protest against POSCO, the Korean steel company for being permitted by the State Government to export iron ore from Orissa to feed steel plants in China and Korea.|
|What did Kishenji mean by an alternative political formation? The question came up in a conversation between Sudha, Karuna, Shaheen and Gracy. All tour women had led very powerful people's movements in different parts of the country. They were meeting in a village in Orissa, away from their day-to-day struggles, to think afresh the future of people's movements.|
|The discussion naturally turned to Kishenji, who was regarded as a friend, political philosopher and moral guide by all the movement groups in the country. He had argued that people's movement should embrace politics openly. His argument was simple yet powerful. Movements focused on a single issue are suitable as long as we wish to achieve limited changes in a particular aspect of life. But if we wish to bring about a fundamental social transformation, or basic change even in one aspect of life, we would need a political organisation. People's movement must establish a new political formation to act as a moral force in politics. This was an urgent task, he said, because all the existing political parties had become irrelevant for social transformation.|
|"But Kishenji never clarified what rera1 that organisation will be. He talked of an alternative political formation, or a third force in politics. But did he mean a political party?" said Gracy. She felt that an old style political party was not the right instrument for social change.|
|Sudha agreed with her. "I have thought about it several times. I agree that all the struggles that we are involved with-the struggle against displacement, against globalisation, against A caste and gender oppression and for an alternative kind of development - all this is political. But the moment we form a party, all the goodwill we have earned all these years will be lost. People will think of us as no different from other politicians"|
|"Besides" added Karuna, "we have seen that a lot can be achieved by putting pressure on the existing political parties. We tried putting up candidates in panchayats elections, but the results were not very encouraging. People respect our work, they even adore us, but when it comes to voting they go for the established political parties."|
|Shaheen did not agree with them: "Let us be very clear. Kishenji wanted all the people's movements to forge a new political party. Of course he wanted this party to be a different kind of a party. He was not for political alternatives, but for an alternative kind of politics."|
question_answer3) Most cartoons often caricature politicians. Here are some cartoons, can you identify which of the challenges described in this section is being highlighted in these cartoons. They relate to Italy, US, and India.
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