The Constitution provides for three kinds of emergencies. (a) National Emergency: If the President feels that there is a danger to the security of the country due to war, external aggression or internal armed rebellion, he can declare National Emergency. During this emergency, all Fundamental Rights are suspended. The government becomes unitary in nature and all powers revert to the centre. The centre can make laws on items of the State List. (b) Emergency caused by breakdown of constitutional machinery of the State: If the President receives a report from the Governor or any other source that the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the Constitution, he can proclaim State Emergency. In such an emergency, the State Legislative Assembly is suspended or dissolved. All Fundamental Rights are suspended. All powers revert to the centre. The Governor rules the state on behalf of the President. (c) Financial Emergency: If the President is satisfied that the financial stability of the country is threatened, he can declare financial emergency. During financial emergency, the President can reduce the salaries of all government servants including the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. The President can direct the state to adopt certain financial rules or discipline.
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