Different types of soils found in India are:
(i) Alluvial Soil. This is the most widespread soil in India. This soil is formed by the deposition of materials by the rivers namely the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra. It is mainly found in northern plains and eastern coastal plains. It is the most fertile soil. Due to high fertility they are intensively cultivated and are densely populated. (ii) Black Soil. This soil is black in colour and cotton grows best in this soil. This-soil is formed by the weathering up of igneous rocks. It is mainly confined to the north western part of peninsular plateau, deccan lava plateau which includes the states of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. (iii) Red and Yellow Soil. Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the Eastern and South eastern parts of the Deccan plateau. This soil is rich in iron compounds and is reddish in colour due to diffusion while it is yellowish in colour when it occurs in hydrated form. (iv) Laterite Soil. These soils are formed by intense leaching in tropical regions where the both temperature and rainfall is high. This soil is devoid of nutrients and has low humus content and is not suitable for crop cultivation. It is mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam. Through soil conservation techniques they are useful for growing tea and coffee. (v) Arid Soils. These soils are sandy and saline in nature. They lack humus and moisture. They can be suitable for crop cultivation where irrigation is available. This soil is mainly found in Rajasthan.
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