|The first review of the Agenda 2030 or the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted in 2015 was held in September, 2019 at the SDG Summit. It was preceded by a related review conference on the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the third Financing for Development (FFD) Conference in April 2019. The two are held in parallel as the FFD process is aimed at garnering domestic and external sources of finance for achieving the SDGs.|
|The progress made by India in implementing the SDGs was documented in India's first voluntary national review that was submitted to the High Level Political Forum on the SDGs in 2017. The report also highlighted the measures adopted to spruce up the domestic resources through mainly internal tax reforms. The second report on progress will be presented at the High Level Political Forum in 2020.|
|As mentioned in the 2017 national review report, India is making the effort to ensure that its impressive growth trickles down to the last man standing through proactive state interventions. At both the review conferences, India in the United Nations (UN) highlighted the domestic actions and flagship schemes that have had a notable impact.|
|NITI Aayog, whose full form is X, the nodal agency for implementing the SDGs, has launched the India Index, an online dashboard, which monitors the implementation of the SDGs at the state level.|
|It also provides incentives to the states, bringing in competition to better their performance. As of now, the states of Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and the union territories of Chandigarh and Puducherry are the front-runners with high composite scores, relating to thirteen of the seventeen goals that have been used to prepare the dashboard. Their scores are in the range of 65-69 of the total 100 points. On individual goals, the scores go much higher to states other than the front runners. Some states have even achieved the targets on individual goals.|
|Earlier issues of the have-nots that were pushed onto to the agenda of the UN by countries of the South was often regarded as instances of the tyranny of the majority by the North. Notwithstanding the ideological turn to liberalism by many countries of the South, their issues did not fade away.|
|"Embedded liberalism" therefore needed to find ways of addressing the quandaries of the new entrants to the liberal order. As a result of efforts from within the UN system, as well as flexible responses of the North and the South, a discursive middle ground on issues of development seems to have been arrived at. The FFD and SDG processes represent this middle ground.|
|The beginning of this process was in the mid- 1990s, and the first notable achievement was the Monterrey Consensus of 2002, which, uniquely, was arrived at with the substantial involvement of Bretton Woods Institutions. It was accepted that the needs of the liberal South required special attention from the North, but that the South itself needed to do much more to address its issues and could choose its own ways to do so,|
|That set the ball rolling for a renewed focus on the importance of the official development assistance (ODA), a fairer system of international taxation, etc., which had been a part of the Southern discourse for decades. The adoption of the SDGs even resulted in a complete revamping of the UN system for providing development assistance with the new system being unveiled in January 2019.|
A) The countries to the North and South of the equator
B) The countries that are members of the UNO and those that are not.
C) The countries that have achieved the SDG goals and those that have not.
D) The developed and the developing nations.
Correct Answer: D
Solution :Rationale: (d) In political science and international relations, the terms North and South are the countries that are developing and the countries that are developed.
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