|McLennan in his book Primitive Society, Morgan to his book Studies in Ancient Society, and Edward Jenks in his work A Short History of Politics advocated the matriarchal theory. According to the matriarchal theory, the State originated not in the family, but in the Horde. The Horde was an unorganised tribe in which sexual relations without any matrimonial intentions were common. As time passed, the Horde left this practice and followed group marriages and gradually they practiced polyandry. This institution of polyandry led to the establishment of matriarchal family. In the matriarchal family, relationship was traced through the female descent. Even if paternity could not be determined, maternity remains a fact. Among some tribes, relationship is recognised through female and not via males, and even succession to property is through female lineage. Owing to the prevalence -of the custom of exogamy, the father belonged to a clan tribe. Jenks illustrated the system from the conditions of the Australian aborigines who resided in "packs" or "totem-groups" and may not marry within totem. The important points of the theory by Jenks are mentioned below:|
|1. Tribe is the earliest form of society. It is the oldest and primary social group. 2. Kinship is traced via females. 3. Conjugal relationships are transient. The earliest form of marriage was polyandry. 4. Females only succeed to power and property. 5. Matriarchal authority is an established fact. 6. Tribes in due course of time disintegrate into clans, clans in turn give place to households, and households, at the end, emerged into modern families.|
A) Polygyny came before polyandry
B) Polyandry came before polygyny
C) Both polyandry and polygyny came simultaneously
D) Polygyny never came
Correct Answer: B
Solution :Rationale: (b) Although the word polygyny is not mentioned in the passage, it is clear that the matriarchy was the first to arrive historically and in matriarchy, polyandry is common. Also, if you notice the steps in evolution, it clear that hoard was the first to come followed by polyandry.
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