CLAT Sample Paper UG-CLAT Mock Test-9 (2020)

  • question_answer
    In December 2018, Nm Aayog released its ‘'Strategy for New India ©75'’ which defined clear objectives for 2022-23, with an overview of 41 distinct areas. In this document, however, the strategy for ‘'water resources’' is as insipid and unrealistic as the successive National Water Policies (NWP).
    Effective strategic planning must satisfy three essential requirements. One, acknowledge and analyse past failures; two, suggest realistic and implementable goals; and three, stipulate who will do what, and within what time frame. The '‘strategy'’ for water fails on all three counts.
    Impaired Vision:
    The document reiterates two failed ideas: adopting an integrated river basin management approach, and setting up of river basin organisations (RBOs) for major basins.
    The integrated management concept has been around for 70 years, but not even one moderate size basin has been managed thus anywhere in the world. And 32 years after the NWP of 1987 recommended RBOs, not a single one has been established for any major basin.
    The water resources regulatory authority is another failed idea. Maharashtra established a water resources regulatory authority in 2005. But far from an improvement in managing resources, water management in Maharashtra has gone from bad to worse. Without analysing why the WRA already established has failed, the recommendation to establish water resources regulatory authorities is inexcusable.
    The strategy document notes that there is a huge gap between Irrigation potential created and utilised, and recommends that the Water Ministry draw up an action plan to complete command area development (CAD) works to reduce the gap.
    Again, a recommendation is made without analysing why CAD works remain incomplete, that too despite having a CAD authority as an integral component of the ministry.
    · Providing adequate and safe piped water supply.
    · Providing water to all farms and industries.
    · Ensuring continuous and clean flow in all the Indian rivers.
    · Assuring long-term sustainability of groundwater.
    · Safeguarding proper operation and maintenance of water infrastructure.
    · Utilising surface water resources to the full potential of 690 billion cu.m.
    · Improving on-farm water-use efficiency.
    · Ensuring zero discharge of untreated effluents from industrial units.
    Issue with above mentioned goals:
    These goals are not just over ambitious, but absurdly unrealistic, particularly for a five-year window. Not even one of these goals has been achieved in any State in the past 72 years. Some goals, such as '‘Har Khet Ko Pani (irrigation to every field)'’, are simply not achievable. A strategy document must specify who will be responsible and accountable for achieving the specific goals, and in what time-frame. Otherwise, no one will accept the responsibility to carry out various tasks, and nothing will get done.
    What are the challenges in India’'s water sector?
    · Irrigation potential created but not being used.
    · Poor efficiency of irrigation systems and indiscriminate use of water in agriculture.
    · Poor implementation and maintenance of projects.
    · Cropping patterns not aligned to agro-climatic zones.
    · Subsidised pricing of water.
    · Citizens not getting piped water supply.
    · Contamination of groundwater.
    · The Easement Act, 1882 which grants groundwater ownership rights to landowners has resulted in uncontrolled extractions of groundwater.
    Why do we need to change the Easement Act, 1882?

    A) It is an old law no longer relevant

    B) It has resulted in uncontrolled extractions of groundwater

    C) Both (a) and (b) above

    D) Neither (a) nor (b) above

    Correct Answer: B

    Solution :

    (b) The Easement Act, 1882 which grants groundwater ownership rights to landowners has resulted in uncontrolled extractions of groundwater

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