12th Class Geography Solved Paper - Geography 2013 Outside Delhi Set-I

  • question_answer Explain any five factors that affect the location of rural settlements of the world.


    The factors that affect the location of rural settlements of the World are:
    (i) Water supply: Usually rural settlements are located near water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and springs where water can be easily obtained. The need for water drives people to settle in islands surrounded by swamps or low lying riverbanks. Water supply is main factor because water - is used for drinking, cooking and washing, rivers and lakes can be used to irrigate farm land, water bodies also have fish which can be caught for diet and navigable rivers and lakes can be used for transportation.
    (ii) Land: People choose to settle near fertile lands suitable for agriculture. Early settlers chose plain areas with fertile soils. In Europe villagers are found near gently sloping land, in south East Asia villages are near low lying river valleys and coastal plains suited for wet rice cultivation.
    (iii) Upland: Villages are located on uplands, which is not prone to flooding. Thus, in low-lying river basins people chose to settle on terraces and levees, which are ?dry points?.
    In tropical countries people build their houses on stilts near marshy lands to protect themselves from flood, insects and animal pests.
    (iv) Building material: The availability of building Materials - wood, stone near settlements is another factor. Early villages were built in forests where wood was plentiful. In African Savannahs mud bricks are used as building materials and the Eskimos, in Polar Regions, use ice blocks to construct igloos.
    (v) Defence: During the times of political instability, war, aggression of neighboring groups, villages were built on defensive hills and islands. In Nigeria, villages are built on upstanding rocks; in India most of the forts are located on hills.

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