12th Class Geography Solved Paper - Geography 2016 Delhi Set-II

  • question_answer Differentiate between Co-operative farming and Collective farming; stating any five points of distinctions.


    (i) Cooperative farming refers to an organization in which: each member, farmer remains the owner of his land individually but farming is done jointly. Profit is distributed among the member, farmers in the ratio of land owned by them. In socialist or communist countries, such as the former Soviet Union, a collective is a cooperative association of farmers who work on land owned by the state but who own most of their own farm implements.
    (ii) Co-operative farming refers to pooling of farming re-sources such as fertilizers, pesticides, farming equipment?s such as tractors. It however generally excludes pooling of land unlike in collective farming where pooling of land is also done .In collective farming the farmers pool in all their resources like land, livestock and labour.
    (iii) A group of farmers form a co-operative society by pooling in their resources voluntarily for more efficient and profitable farming. Collective farming is based on social ownership of the means of production and collective labour.
    (iv) In Co-operative farming the farmers get assistance, to procure all important inputs of farming, sell the products at the most favourable terms and help in processing of quality products at cheaper rates. In case of collective farming yearly targets were set by the government and the produce was also sold to the state at fixed prices. Produce in excess of the fixed amount was distributed among; the members or sold in the market.
    (v) Co-operative movement originated over a century ago and has been successful in many Western European countries like Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Italy etc. Tins type of farming was introduced in former Soviet Union under the socialist regime which was adopted by the socialist countries.


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