12th Class History Solved Paper - History 2012 Outside Delhi Set-I

  • question_answer
    Explain any three broad architectural styles used by the British for the public buildings in the colonial cities, with examples.
    Explain did Quit India Movement was genuinely a mass movement.


    The British arrival in 1615 overthrew the Mughal Empire. Britain reigned India for over three hundred years and their legacy still remains through building and infrastructure.
    The major cities colonized during this period were Madras, Calcutta, Bombay Delhi, Agra Hyderabad etc.
    For public buildings three broad architectural styles were used, they are:
    1. Neo-classical style
    2. Neo-Gothic style
    3. Indo-Saracenic style
    1. Neo-classical style included construction of geometrical structures fronted with lofty pillars. It was derived from a style that was originally typical of buildings in ancient Rome and then modified in Europe. It was considered particularly appropriate for the British Empire in India as the British imagined that a style that embodied the grandeur of imperial Rome could now be made to express the glory of imperial India as well as suitability for tropical weather. The Town Hall in Bombay was built in this style in 1833.
                The Elphinstone Circle made during 1860s was a commercial building which was inspired from models in Italy It made innovative use of covered arcades at ground level to shield the shoppers and pedestrians from the fierce sun and rain of Bombay.
    2. Neo-Gothic: It was characterized by high- itched roofs, pointed arches and detailed decoration. The Neo-Gothic style was revived in the mid-nineteenth century in England and during this time structures were being built in Bombay, therefore an impressive group of buildings facing the seafront including the Secretariat, University of Bombay and High Court were all built in this style.
                The most spectacular example of the Neo-Gothic style is the Victoria Terminus, the station and headquarters of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway Company. The British invested a lot in the design and construction of railway stations in cities, since they were proud of having successfully built an all India railway network and their uniform Neo-Gothic style gave a distinctive character to the city.
    3. Indo-Saracenic style: Towards the beginning of the twentieth century a new hybrid architectural style developed which combined the Indian with the European. This was called Indo-Saracenic. The inspiration for this style was medieval buildings in India with their domes, chhatris, jalis, arches.
    Example: the Gateway of India, built in the traditional Gujrati style in 1911.
    The industrialist Jamsed Ji Tata built the Taj Mahal Hotel in a similar style. Besides being a symbol or Indian enterprise, this building became a challenge to the racially exclusive clubs and hotels maintained by the British. Thus this style was not seen totally alien to India.
    Quit India movement was genuinely a moss movement because it saw widespread participation from women students, peasants, zamindars etc. and even industrialists. This was not witnessed hitherto in all preceding movements.
                After the failure of the Cripps Mission, Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch his third major movement against British rule i.e., Quit India Movement which began in August 1942.
                Although Gandhiji was jailed at once but still younger activists organized strikes and acts of sabotage all over the country. Particularly active in the underground resistance were socialist members of the Congress, such as Jayaprakash Narayan. In several districts, such as Satara in the west and Medinipur in the east, independent government were proclaimed. Thus there was widespread realization - chat all should come together to resist Britishers.
                The movement revealed the determination of the people to undergo any amount of suffering for the cause of the country. It witnessed participation of students, working class and peasants. Actually, it was the participation of the peasant communication that turned the movement into a mass upsurge. The British responded with much force, yet it took more than a year to suppress the rebellion. This movement was successful in bringing into its ambit hundreds of thousands of ordinary Indians.
                Since most leaders were jailed leaving the movement to be leaderless the protest took a violent turn. Large-scale protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent in masse and strikes were called.
                However, while the Congress leaders languished in jail and masses were rising in anger and protest, all the other major parties rejected the Quit India plan, and most cooperated closely with the British, as did the princely states, the civil service and the police. The Muslim League supported the Raj and grew rapidly in membership, and in influence with the British.

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