12th Class History Solved Paper - History 2017 Outside Delhi Set-I

  • question_answer
    Identify the relationship between the Sufis and the State from the eighth to the eighteenth century.
    Identity the relation-ship of the Alvars and Navanars of Tamil Nadu with the State from the eighth to the eighteenth century.


    (a) Sufism emerged as a powerful movement in India during the medieval period. The Suits ?were liberal in their outlooks. They were critics of the dogmatic definitions and the scholastic methods of interpreting Quran and Sunna adopted by the theologists. They sought an interpretation of the Quran on the basis of their personal experiences and considered it as their supreme duty to serve humanity.
    (b) The Chistis kept themselves aloof from the politics and never wished to get any government aid or assignment. They maintained a distance from political and worldly power.
    (c) They accepted unasked grants made by the Delhi Sultan or other elite. They spent accumulated wealth in forms of donations in arranging the facilities for the pilgrims. The common people were deeply influenced by the charismatic power of Sufi saints. That is why, the Sultan even wanted to secure their support. They not only wanted their association but also desired support and legitimacy from them.
    (d) It was under the influence of Chishti Saints, the Sultan spurned the demand of Ulema to impose Sharia. It was because the Sultan knew very well that the most of the people were non-Muslims. By imposing Sharia on them, they did not want to take any risk. They got the support of Sufis who did not believe in the interpretation of Sharia by Ulema.
    (e) The Sufi acted as a mediator between Allah and the common people and it was believed that on the persuasion of the Sufis, God improved the material and spiritual condition of the common people.
    (f) In spite of this there were some instances of conflicts between Sufis and the Sultan, because both wanted to acertain their authorities by emphasising on certain rules and regulations. Such ritual includes kissing of feet and prostration.
    (g) Sometimes the Sufi Shaikhs were also adorned with a high sounding titles. Eg. Shaikh Nizzamuddin Auliya was adorned with the title of Sultan Ul Mashaikh.
    (h) The Surawardi and Naqshbondi Sufis also had close relations with the state during Mughal Empire. Some Sufis had even secured the royal offices in the court and did not believe in the life of austerity. Sufis accepted court offices but the Chishti Sufis did not accept it.
    (a) The Alvars were the devotee of Lord Vishnu and played a remarkable role in popularising Vaishnavism in South India. By the 10th century the composition of twelve Alvar poets were compiled in an anthology, known as Nalayira Divyaprabandham. It is written in Tamil and consisted of 4000 devotional songs.
    (b) The Nayanars were the devotees of lord Shiva in the Southern India. The Chola rulers of south had intimate relations with them. It was because of the fact that nayanars had immense status in the society. So these ruler, the chela wanted to get their supports.
    (c) They tried to claim me divine support and with this motive they built magnificent Shiva temples at Chidambaram. Thanjavur and Gangaikadacholapuram.
    (d) In. these temples, bronze made sculptures of Lord Shiva were kept and known as Nataraj.
    (e) There is an inscription evidence around 945 which tells as that the Chola ruler Parantaka I had adorned Nataraja temples of Chidambaram with consecrated metal image of Appyar, Sambandar and Sundarar.
    (f) Krishna I, a Rashtrakuta ruler, who built Kailash temple at Ellora, also granted for the construction of many temples. These rulers not only popularised die hymns of Shiva but also made a great contribution in the compilation of Tevaram.
    (g) Since both the sects were against the caste system that existed in the society, the rulers also considered their point of view-? and coordinated the thought process of both Alvars and Nayanars.
    (h) The Chola rulers patronised those Alvars and Nayanars saints who sang hymns in the temples. They came from all the sections of the society including the untouchable castes like Puliayar and Panars.


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