12th Class Political Science Solved Paper - Political Science-2016 Outside Delhi Set-I

  • question_answer
    Trace the evolution of the United Nations since it establishment in 1945. How does it function with the help of its structures and agencies?
    Describe the security challenges faced by the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War.


    Evolution of the UN:
    (i) The United Nations was founded as a successor to the League of Nations. It was established m 1945 just after the Second World War.
    (ii) The UN was set up through the signing of the UN Charter by 51 states.
    (iii) It was formed with the hope mar if would act to stop conflict and wars.
    (iv) By 2006, UN had 192 members. These included almost all independent states. Presently, its Secretary General is Ban ki Moon of South Korea.
    It?s Functioning:
    (i) In the UN General Assembly, all member nations have one vote each.
    (ii) In the UN Security Council, there are five Permanent members - Britain, France, US, Russia and China and lo temporary members.
    (iii) The UN consists of many structures and agencies.
    (iv) War, peace, and. difference between the member states are discussed, in the General Assembly.
    (v) Social and Economic issues are dealt with by many agencies including WTO, UNDP, UNHRC, UNICEF and UNESCO.
    Following are the security challenges faced by the newly - independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War:
    (i) The security challenges facing the newly -independent countries of Asia and Africa were certainly different from the challenges in Europe in two ways. These new countries faced the prospect of military conflict with neighboring countries.
    (ii) These countries also had to worry about internal - military conflict. These countries faced threats not only from outside their boundaries, generally from their neighbours, but also from within.
    (iii) Several newly-independent countries came to fear their neighbours even more than they feared the US or the USSR or the former colonial powers. They had disputes and differences over borders and territories or control or people and populations or all of these simultaneously.
    (iv) Internally the new states were anxious and troubled about threats from separatist movements which desired to make independent countries. Sometimes, the internal and external threats combined.
    (v) A neighbour might assist or provoke an internal separatist movement leading to tensions between the two neighbouring countries.

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