12th Class Political Science Solved Paper - Political Science-2018 Outside Delhi

  • question_answer
    Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
    The Congress evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professionals and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle class and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement it launched, its social base widened.
    (1) What is meant by a pressure group?
    (2) Explain the reason for the Congress to be transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition by the time of Independence.
    (3) What made the Congress into a mass political party in the twentieth century?

    Answer:

    (1) Pressure group is a group of educated, professional and commercial classes. It has a pressure on political parties from outside. Congress was a pressure group at the time of British rule.
    (2) (a) The congress party became a social and ideological coalition for it merged different social groups along with their identity holding different beliefs.
    (b) It accommodated the revolutionary, conservative, pacifist, radical, extremist and moderates and the right and the left wing with all other shades of the centre.
    (c) In pro-independence days, many organisations and parties with their own constitutions were allowed to exist within the congress.
    (3) (a) When congress party started to decline, then the charismatic lady Indira Gandhi took over the control. She fulfilled the aspirations of people.
    (b) Indira Gandhi gave slogan like ?GARIBI HATAO? and implemented Twenty Point Programme for the society.


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