12th Class Political Science Solved Paper - Political Science-2018 Outside Delhi

  • question_answer
    'In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most political parties of India.' In the light of this statement, analyse any three elements of growing consensus.
    'Jammu and Kashmir is one of the living examples of plural society and politics.' Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments.


    Growing consensus: On many crucial issues, a broad agreement has emerged among most parties. Though many of the political parties have ideological differences but such consensus help them come together and keep their rival political parties not to become ruling party.
    The main elements of such consensus are as follow:
    (1) Agreement on new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, many among them are in support of the new economic policies. They believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and status of economic power in the world.
    (2) Acceptance of the political and social claims of the backward caste: Backward population in the country is 40.94%, the SC population is 19.59%, ST population is 8.63% of the total population. Hence to attract these population, all political parties have recognised that the social and political claims need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support reservation of seats for the "Backward Classes" in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
    (3) Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements. Thus, most parties of NDA did not agree with the ?HINDUTAVA? ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
                 It is clear from the above statement that to become a ?RULING PARTY/ALLIANCES?, any party can shift from one camp to other camp. In present case, BJP alliances wanted to keep congress out of Central Ruling Party.
    Jammu and Kashmir: The political situation in the state has many dimensions.
    (1) Jammu and Kashmir comprises of three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
    (a) The heart of the Kashmir region is the Kashmir valley. The people are Kashmir speaking and mostly Muslim with a small Kashmir which consists speaking Hindu Minority.
    (b) Jammu region is a mix of foothills and plains or various language speaking Hindus, Muslim, and Sikhs.
    (c) The Ladakh region is mountainous and has very lime population, which is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims.
    (2) Separatists want a separate Kashmir, Nation, independent of India and Pakistan. However, there is a group in Kashmir who wants greater autonomy for the people of state within the Indian Union. The idea of autonomy attracts the people of Jammu and Ladakh region in a different wav-they often complain of being backward and neglected. Therefore, the demand for Intra-state autonomy is as strong as the demand for the state autonomy.
    (3) The initial period of popular support to military has now given a way to the urge for peace. The centre has started negotiations with various sepatarist group. Instead of demanding a separate nation, most of the sepatarists in dialogue arc trying to re-negotiate relationship of the State with India.
               Jammu and Kashmir is one or the living examples of plural society and politics. Not only there are diversities of all kinds (religious, cultural, linguistic, ethnic, tribal but there are also divergent political aspirations. However, despite all these diversities and divergence on the one hand and continued situation of conflict on the other, the plural and secular culture of die State has remained largely intact.


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