12th Class Biology Population (Demography) Population Trends in the World and India

Population Trends in the World and India

Category : 12th Class

Population Trends in the World

The distribution of human population is not uniform throughout the world. Only about one third of the total land area is inhabited. Of the inhabited areas, some are thickly populated, others sparsely. This depends upon the availability of the requirements of life. About 56% of the total world population resides in Asia alone. Bangladesh is the most thickly populated country, and Australia, the most thinly populated.

Annual Birth, Death and Growth Rates for Human Population in 1973

S. No

Region

Population (Millions)

Average Annual Birth Rate per 1,000 Individuals

Average Annual Death Rate per 1,000 Individuals

Annual Growth Rate Percent

 

(1)

World

3860

33

13

2.0

(2)

Developed Countries

1120

17

9

0.8

(3)

Developing

Countries

2740

39

14

2.5

 

Population Trends in India

(1) Population : India with a population of 1027 million as 2001 census stands second in the world. The world leader in the matter of population is China with a population of 1160 million. India has only 2.42% of the world's land area but supports over 15.5% of the world's population. Thus, one in every 6 persons in the world is an Indian. India's population has been steadily rising since 1921. However, from the year 1921, often called the "big divide", its population started to swell up sharply. India's population has increased 3 times since independence (1947) when its population was 340 million. About 1800 individuals are born every hour, 17 million every year. India's population crossed one billion (100 crores) mark on May 11, 2000.

 

India's Population 1901 to 2001

Years

Population

Year

Population

1901

238,396,327

1961

439,234,771

1911

252,093,390

1971

548,159,652

1921

251,321,213

1981

683,329,097

1931

278,977,238

1991

846,302,688

1941

318,660,580

2001

1,027,015,247

1951

361,088,090

 

 

(2) Sex Ratio : Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males in a country or state. Sex composition is affected by three factors : (i) differentials in male-female ratio at birth, (ii) differentials in mortality conditions of males and females, and (iii) sex-selective migration. India is one of the few countries where the males are more than the females.

 

India's Sex Ratio 1901 to 2001

Year's

Population density

1901

972

1911

964

1921

955

1931

950

1941

945

1951

946

1961

941

1971

930

1981

934

1991

927

2001

933

 

(3) Literacy Rate : The literacy rate was 65.28% according to the 2001 census. It was 76.40 % for males and 54.16% for females. The literacy rate has been steadily increasing since 1951. Among the Union Territories, Lakshadweep has the highest literacy rate of 87.52%. Literacy rate is highest in Kerala (90.92%) and lowest in Bihar (47.53%). Any person who can read and write with understanding in any language is recorded as literate in census. All children below 7 years are shown as illiterate in the census.

 

India's Literacy Rate 1961 to 2001

Years

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

Literacy Rate

24.02

29.45

43.56

52.21

65.38

 

Factors Favouring Population Growth

(1) Decrease in death rate.

(2) Increase in average life span.

(3) Better medical facilities.

(4) Control of insect vector's of fatal diseases and epidemics.

(5) Better sanitation.

(6) Proper care of new-born children and their mothers.

(7) Better nutrition and life amenities.

(8) Protection against wild life and adverse whether through living in houses.

 

Details of India's Population of 1981, 1991 and 2001

Date

1981 Census

1991 Census

2001 Census

Rise/ Fall

Population :

Total

Males

Females

683,329,097

364,214,409

319,114,688

843,930,861

437,597,929

406,332,932

1,027,015,247

531,277,078

495,738,169

+

+

+

Decennial Population Growth :

Absolute

Percentage

135,169,445

24.66%

160,601,764

23.50%

183,084,386

21.34%

+

-

Annual Population Growth Rate

2.46%

2.35%

2.13%

-

Population Density per square Kilo metre

216

267

324

+

Sex Ratio

934 Females Per 1000 Males

929 Females Per 1000 Males

933 Females Per 1000 Males

+

Literacy Rate :

Total

Males

Females

43.56%

56.37%

29.75%

52.11%

63.86%

39.42%

65.38%

75.85%

54.16%

+

+

+

 

India's Population Density 1991 to 2001

Year's

Population density

1901

73

1911

77

1921

76

1931

85

1941

97

1951

110

1961

134

1971

167

1981

208

1991

267

2001

324

 

Percentage Age Groups in India

Years

0-14 Years

15-59 Years

60 plus Years

1970

42

54.5

3.5

1980

40

54.8

6.2

1990

36

57.5

6.5

2000

31.7

60.8

7.6

 

Parameters of 2001 census

  • Population ..................... 1027.015

(+183 million)

Males = 531.277 million

Females = 495.738 million

  • Population density................. 324 persons/sq. Km. (+60 persons/sq. Km.).
  • Sex ratio................ 933 F : 1,000 M.
  • Absolute decennial population growth .................... +183 million.
  • Percent decennial population growth................... 21.34%(-2.52).
  • Literacy rate.................... 65.38%(+13.27%).
  • Male literacy................... 75.85%.
  • Female literacy............... 54.16%(+14.74%).
  • Birth rate............... 26 per 1,000.
  • Death rate............ 8 per 1,000.

Other Information about Census 2001 :

  • Most populous state of India = Uttar Pradesh (166 millions) (18.17%).
  • Second Most populous state of India = Maharashtra (95 millions).
  • Least populous state of India = Sikkim (5.40 lakh).
  • Most densely populated state of India = West Bengal (904 persons per sq. Km.).
  • Second most densely populated state of India = Bihar (880 persons per sq. Km.).
  • Least densely populated state = Arunachal Pradesh (13 persons per sq. Km.).
  • Union territory with maximum population density = Delhi (9,294 persons per sq. Km.).
  • Union territory with minimum population density = Andaman and Nicobar (43 persons per sq. Km.).
  • State with highest Decennial population growth = Nagaland (64.41%).
  • State with lowest Decennial population growth = Kerala (9.42%).
  • Average life expectancy in India = 64 years.
  • Sex ratio in Kerala state = 1,058 F :1,000 M.

State with highest literacy rate  = Kerala 90.92% (94.2% in males and 88% in females).

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