**Category : **2nd Class

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES**

**This lesson will help you to lean**

- recording of data using tally marks.
- collecting data and representing in terms of pictograph.
- drawing inferences from the data at the appropriate level.
- organising and displaying data in different way.
- understanding and using the information quickly.

**QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW**

The information in a list can be in the form of names and numbers. Such information is called data. There are three steps of data handling -

**STEPS OF DATA HANDLING**

- Collection of data

Data collection process includes:

- Asking the right questions to the right people.
- Collecting information from people.
- Organising information in a table (using tally marks).

**Example:**

I want to know the favourite sport of class II. How can I do that?

To know the favourite sport of class II we need to:

- select the right question: What is your favourite sport?
- give options :

Hockey/Cricket/Tennis/Football

- ask all the students of class II
- organize information in a table
- draw conclusions.

**Recording and Representation of Data**

Data are facts that are collected by counting things and events. The data can be represented through tally marks.

** **

**Tally Marks:**

Tally marks are vertical lines. They can be counted in group of 5. One vertical line is drawn for each of the first four counts. The fifth is represented by a line across the previous four lines.

Representation of Tally Marks.

**Amazing Facts**

- In Ancient Egypt and China, many times the whole story was narrated with the help of pictographs.
- The modern artist Xu Binf developed a universal language consisting of pictograms used all over the world.
- Tally marks are also called hash marks and tally sticks.

**Example:**

From above table it can be concluded:

- Cricket is the most favourite sport.
- Football is the least favourite sport.
- 15 students like hockey.
- 10 students like tennis.

**Pictorial Representation of Data (Pictograph)**

We can represent some numerical information (data) in the form of pictures, it is known as pictograph or pictorial representation.

**Example:** Raj recorded number of cloudy days for 4 weeks in a month.

Weeks | Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 |

Cloudy days | 5 | 6 | 3 | 1 |

This information can be represented on the pictograph in following manner.

**Scale:** When objects are more in number, then one picture can represent more than one object. This is called scale. We can make a pic+ograph with different scales. Example: The number of sheep in four villages are given below

Village | Village A | Village B | Village C | Village D |

Sheep | 50 | 60 | 40 | 20 |

**Historical Preview**

- William play fair created the first bar graph in 1786 in his book ‘The Commercial and political Atlas’.
- Pictographs formed the basis for early written symbols as used by ancient Egyptian, Sumerian and Chinese civilizations.

**Interpretation of Data**

While interpreting data, we draw conclusions from the data which help us to take decisions.

**Example:** The number of burgers sold at Tango's shop on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday is represented through the following pictograph.

- The number of burgers sold on Thursday is 20.
- The maximum number of burgers were sold on Monday.
- The minimum number of burgers were sold on Wednesday
- The total number of burgers sold on all four days is 90.

So if Tango uses this data properly he would prepare less burgers on Wednesday.

This would save his money. Don't you agree?

**Real Life Examples**

- Data handling helps doctors to keep records of patients.
- Helps teachers to keep record of students of their classes.

*play_arrow*Data Handling

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