3rd Class Science Shelter Shelter

Shelter

Category : 3rd Class

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

This lesson will help you to: -

  • learn why do we need shelter/houses.
  • learn about different kinds of shelter/houses.
  • understand how people decorate their homes.
  • know proper ways to dispose garbage.
  • develop a better sense of direction.

 

QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW

Why do we need a House

People build houses to keep them safe and secure. It protects us from rain, snow, heat, wind or dangerous animals. Houses are built from whatever is available. (Sometimes people use wood, stone, clay bricks, mud, straw even ice.

 

Misconcept / Concept

Misconcept: There are two kinds of houses- Pukka houses or apartments and slums or kutcha houses.

Concept: Caves, huts, tents, caravans, stilt houses, igloos, house boats, marquees, villas, bungalows, mansions and palaces are different types of houses.

Misconcept: Throwing waste in dustbin is disposing garbage.

Concept: Before disposing garbage, it is important to separate degradable waste to non- degradable. This is proper disposal of garbage.

 

WHY DO PEOPLE NEED SHELTER TO SURVIVE?

Shelter provides safety and protection from weather and predators. Without shelter, one may freeze in the winter or become dinner of an animal. Shelter may come in many different forms, for example caves, trees or man-made structures. Shelter provides us comfort and safety.

 

DIFFERENT KINDS OF HOUSES

There are different types of houses. Based on the type of roofs, houses are divided into sloped roof or flat roof. Slope or slanting roof is used in places of heavy rainfall or snowfall. Different types of materials are used for slanting roof houses. This varies from dry leaves, palm leaves or grasses. In remote areas and mountainous regions, houses are simply made of readily available materials like wood, thatch, bamboo etc. Such houses are called kutcha houses. On the other hand, houses that are made of brick, cement etc. are called pukka houses.

Some people keep moving from one place to another. Tents and caravans are temporary houses and can be carried from one place to another. Flats, bungalows, mansions and pukka houses can't be moved from one place to another, so they are called permanent houses.

Caves, huts, tents, caravans, stilt houses, tree houses, igloos, house boats, marquees, villas, bungalows, mansions and palaces are different types of houses.

 

SOME EXCITING HOUSES

  • In India houseboats are common on the Dal Lake near srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir and on the backwaters of Kerala.
  • An Igloo is a type of shelter built of snow found in Greenland, Canada's central Arctic region.
  • A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or ropes traditionally used by nomadic people.
  • Even in hilly areas like Himachal, houses are made of stone or wood with slanting roof as it rains and snows heavily.
  • But in cities like Delhi, Mumbai people mostly have flat roofed houses.

 

HOW PEOPLE DECORATE THEIR HOUSES?

In Kerala, women decorate houses with Kolam designs using rice flour and red clay. In Maharashtra, every household in the state installs Ganesha idols, made out of mud arid painted in water colours, at home. In Gujarat, people decorate their houses with 'Rangoli' and eat food prepared from sesame. In Kashmir, the house boats are well-decorated with intricately designed traditional wood carvings, and the rooms are decorated with walnut wood furniture and finest kashmiri carpets.  

 

PROPER DISPOSAL OF GARBAGE TO MAKE OUR SURROUNDIND CLEAN

We should contribute in household work. We should help in mopping and cleaning and keeping our house clean. Before disposing garbage, it is important to separate degradable waste and non-degradable waste.

Waste material should be disposed properly in a bag. Biodegradable   materials   like   paper   products, biodegradable plastic, fruit or vegetable waste such as the seeds, food, and organic matter should be decomposed in green bags.

Non-biodegradable things like glass, wood, metal or other electronic items should be disposed in a blue bag and should be disposed into a trash can or recyclable bin so that it does not cause harm to the environment.

 

FAMILY AND ANIMALS IN HOUSE

Joint Family is a big family in which the father, mother, children, uncle, aunt and cousins all stay together. The nuclear family is a family that consists of mother, father and their children.

We keep pets like cat, dog or birds like parrot and hen in our homes. These pets eat meat, chapatis, or even specially made food for pets. Apart from pets, insects like mosquitoes, crickets, ants, bees, flies, bugs, fleas, bookworms and even termites live in our homes. These animals live in mattresses, in the corner of almirahs, behind curtains and under beds. Generally, insects eat anything, like other insects, leaves, fruit, grass, dirt, etc., whereas insects like mosquitoes survive by sucking human blood.

 

MAPPING MY NEIGHBOURHOOD

The surrounding area near ones house is known as neigh bour hood and the people or families living near the house are called neighbours.

The best thing to develop a sense of direction or to remember places in neighborhood is to look for landmarks. For instance, try and remember your house is in which side from the landmark. What lies in the way from your home to your school? Similarly, while visiting new places, take a minute to familiarize yourself before you enter any building and try to look for architectural details. So, next time when you visit that place it will become easier to recall it.

Look at the following directions:

 

There are four cardinal directions: North  South East  West .  We can go to any place with the help of these directions. We also use some symbols in the map to show which things are there in our neighborhood. Some important symbols are like.  

 

A.

 

1.

House

B.

 

2.

Tree

C.

 

3.

Hospital

D.

 

4.

Gate

E.

 

5.

Temple

 

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