5th Class Science Human Body and their Needs Sense Organs

Sense Organs

Category : 5th Class

*          Sense Organs

 

Our sense organs help us to see, hear, taste, smell, and touch..

 

*         Skin

There are tiny nerve endings in our skin. These nerve endings help us to feel things. They also help us to detect heat, cold, and pain.

 

         Skin                

 

*        Eyes

Eyes help us in seeing the various objects around us. Since eyes are very important organs, our body has several features to protect them. The eyebrows prevent sweat from running into the eyes. The eyelashes protect the eyes form dirt and strong light. The eyelids protect the eyes form injury.

 

     

               Eyes  

 

*         Ears

Ear help us in hearing. They also help us to keep our balance.

 

  Ears  

 

*         Nose

Nose helps us to smell a variety of objects from flowers to rotten eggs.

 

     Nose  

 

*        Tongue

Tongue helps us in tasting things. Different regions of the tongue help us in tasting different kind of substances.

 

      Tongue  

 

*         Nutrition

Nutrition is defined as the process through which organisms take in and utilizes materials necessary to support life. Food contains chemical substances called nutrients that are required by all living organisms. Our body requires carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins. In addition to the five nutrients, our body also requires water and roughage.

 

*         Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Large percentage of food that we eat consists of carbohydrates. The simplest form of carbohydrate is sugar such as glucose and fructose. For example, glucose is present in food items like jams, jellies, etc. and fructose is present in various fruits such as banana, apple, etc.

 

                

Jam                    and                        jelly contains glucose

 

Complex form of carbohydrate is starch. Starch is present in food items such as  wheat, rice, potato, etc. Starch or sugar cannot be stored in the body.  

 

                                                   

             Potato,                                              rice                         and                      wheat contains starch  

 

*         Fats

Fats contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Energy given by one gram of fat is twice the energy given by one gram of carbohydrate. Fat is present in food items such as butter, ghee, milk, grandaunts, etc. Our body takes long time to break down fat than to break down carbohydrate. Fats can be stored in the body. If the carbohydrates consumed are more than the required quantity, then excess amount is converted into fats and is stored in the body.

                                                  

             Butter,                                              ghee,                                        milk,                        groundnut contains fat  

 

*          Proteins

Proteins contain nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Proteins are required for the growth and repair of the body. Our hair, nails, skin and muscles are made up of proteins. Protein is found in food items such as pulses, soya bean, nuts, egg, meat, etc. Protein cannot be stored in our bodies. If excess amount of protein is consumed then it is excreted from the body in the form of urea or is stored as fats.

 

                         

        Egg              and                 pulses contain proteins  

 

*         Vitamins

Vitamins are required for the healthy functioning of the body. Vitamins are required in very small quantity by our bodies. If required quantities of vitamins are not present in our diet, then one can fall ill. The various vitamins required by our body are vitamin A, B-complex, C, D, E and K. Vitamin B-complex includes vitamin B1, B2, B6 and B12.

 

Our body gets vitamins from outside sources such as plants. Vitamin D can be manufactured in the body, when the body comes in the contact of sunlight.

 

Vitamin Source Function Deficiency Disease
A Spinach, carrots, pumpkins, butter, sweet potatoes, fish-liver oil, Keping eyes, hair and skin healthy Poor vision, night blindness, low resistance to disease  
B1 Eggs meat, all cereals, yeast, milk   Helps in proper functioning of digestive and nervous system Weakness and beriberi
B2 Eggs, peas, beans, milk, green vegetables, fish, meat Keeping skin and mouth healthy Poor growth, bad skin, sons in mouth
B6 Wheat, other cereals, potatoes, tomatoes, meat, fish, peanuts Keeping skin, nervous and digestive systems healthy Pellagra  
B12 Animal products such as meat, fish, liver, eggs, milk Helps in the formation of blood and proper growth Anaemia  
C All fresh fruits, especially citrus fruits, guava, amla tomatoes Keeping gums and joints healthy and building resistance to infections   A disease called scurvy bleeding gums, loose teeth and aching joints
D Fish-liver oil, milk, butter. Sunlight helps the body to produce this vitamin Building strong bones and teeth Rickets in children and soft bones in adults
K Green vegetables, tomaties, yolk of   Clotting of blood Excessive bleeding after injury

 

*        Minerals

Minerals are also required in small quantities by our body. Various minerals are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, iron, fluorine, sulphur, phosphorus and iodine. Food consists of compounds that contain these elements. For example, common salt contains sodium, chloride and iodine. Calcium is present in milk, green vegetables and beans. Calcium is required for the growth and maintenance of bones and muscles. Iron is present in cereals, pulses, meat, leafy vegetables and eggs. Iron is essential for the formation of blood.

 

                                              

      Milk,                                           bean                       and          green vegetables contain calcium  

 

*         Water

Most of the weight of a person is due to water content in the body. Water is very essential for the existence of organisms. Water carries the digested food around the body. Water is the constituent of blood and carries chemicals and gases throughout the body. Water is responsible for regulating the body temperature.

 

*         Roughage

Roughage or fibre is required for the smooth functioning of digestive system. Roughage swells up in the intestine by absorbing water and helps in smooth movement of digested food in intestine. Fibre is present in whole grain flour, whole pulses/green peas, leafy vegetables and fruits.

 

*         Balanced Diet

Diet is the food that we eat. A diet that contains all the nutrients required by the body in the right proportion is called a balanced diet. A balanced diet is required by our body for its proper functioning. Thus for proper health of the body, foods that provide sufficient amount of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins must be included in the diet. Both fats and carbohydrates provide energy to body, more amount of carbohydrates and less amount of fats should be included in diet. This is because the fats are difficult to digest and fat deposition causes obesity and many other diseases. In addition, one must drink sufficient amount of water. The diet should also include roughage.

 

*       Deficiency Diseases

If there is not a proper intake of food then a person suffers from malnutrition. The malnourished body does not function properly, and the person can suffer from diseases. Children suffering from malnutrition have slow mental and physical growth and catches infection easily.

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