11th Class Biology The Living World / जीव जगत

  • question_answer 11)
    Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with suitable examples of a plant and an animal.


    Taxonomic hierarchy is the system of arrangement of taxonomic categories in a descending order depending upon their relative dimensions. It was introduced by Linnaeus (1751) and is therefore, also called Linnaeus hierarchy. Each category, referred to as a unit of classification, commonly called as taxon (pi. taxa), e.g., taxonomic categories and hierarchy can be illustrated by a group of organisms, i.e., insects. The common features of insects is 'three pair of jointed legs'. It means insects are recognizable objects which can be classified, so given a rank or category. Kingdom Phylum/Division Sub-phylum Class Order Family Genus Species   Category further denotes a rank. Each rank or taxon, represents a unit of classification taxonomic studies of all plants and animals led to the development of common 'categories such as kingdom, phylum or division (for plants) class, order, family, genus and species. All organisms, including tose in the plant and animal kingdoms have 'species' as the lowest category. To place an organism in various categories is to have the knowledge of characters of an individual or group of organism. This help to identity similarities and dissimilarities among the individual of the same kind of organisms as well as of other kinds of organism. Some organisms with their taxonomical categories are given in following table.   Organisms with their Taxonomic Categories
    Common Name   Biological Name   Genus     Family     Order     Class     Phylum/Division  
    Man   Homo sapiens Homo   Hominidae   Primata   Mammalia   Chordata  
      Housefly   Musca Domestica   Musca   Muscidae   Diptera   Insecta   Arthropoda  
      Mango   Mangifera indica Mangifera   Anacardiaceae Sapindales Dicotyledonae Angiospermae
      Wheat   Triticum Aestivum Triticum   Poaceae   Poales   Monocotyledonae Angiospermae  

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