11th Class Biology The Living World / जीव जगत

  • question_answer 39)
      What is meant by living? Give any four defining features of life forms.


                      The living organism exhibit distinctive characteristics, which are as follows (i) Growth All living organisms grow in size as well as in number. Plants show growth all through their life whereas animals up to a certain growth period after which growth ceases. (ii) Reproduction The process of reproduction is essential for the continuity of life on earth. Every organism whether unicellular or multicellular gives rise to an individual of its own kind. Lower organisms usually reproduce asexually, e.g.. Hydra, fungi, yeast, etc. Sexual reproduction is found in advanced group of organisms, which involves two parents. In Amoeba growth and reproduction however is synonymous. (iii) Metabolism There are thousands of enzymatic ally controlled reactions occurring in all living cells. These are synthesizing (anabolic) and breaking down (catabolic) reactions. Hence, it is the most important characteristic of living organisms. (iv) Response to stimuli Consciousness and response to stimulus is the defining property of all living organisms. Plants respond to light, water temperature. Unicellular organisms also sense their environment and respond accordingly. (v) Cellular organization The cellular organization of the body is the defining feature of life forms. Cells work together in hierarchical manner group of cells make tissues, tissues make organs, organs make systems, systems when work in co-ordination form an individual. So, we can say living organisms are self replicating, evolving and capable of responding to external stimuli.

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