Category : 7th Class

DEFINITION

Advertising brings a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. Advertising is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different from that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc.

Advertising is the activity of drawing public attention to a product or service in order to encourage people to buy it.

It seems very difficult to craft a perfect advertisement to entice potential consumers or influence public opinion.

But the right way to make a good advertisement is to keep simple. An ad sums up everything that is smart, innovative, and distinguished about your brand, and is almost indispensable in today's economic marketplace.

Advertisers create ads for an intended audience. They have a purpose behind designing an advertisement and publishing it in a particular way. Advertising affects people in different ways. People today are exposed to a large amount of advertising.

A catchy, snappy tagline is the sole of an advertisement. Keeping short and sweet within six or seven words might serve the purpose. Loud sounding advertisements appeal less to our senses. The immediate purpose of advertisement is to garb the consumer's attention and convince him or her that your product is different from others.

AVOID THE SAME OLD CLICHES

Being memorable is the key to good advertisement. Avoid terms like-new and improved, guaranteed, or free gift-is there any other kind?

• Startle the reader to pay attention because it is especially useful if you have a lot to say. For example long announcement wouldn't turn many heads if it weren't for the unusual, confrontational tagline; if the reader wants to get the joke, she or he has to read more.
• Know how to walk the line between controversial and entertaining. Pushing the limits of good taste to help your ad grab attention is common practice, but don't go too far — you want your product to be recognised on its own merits, not because it was tied to a tasteless advertisement.
• Use a persuasive technique. There are tried and true methods that advertisers rely on to make their ads stick.

These include:

• Common sense: Challenging the consumer to think of a good reason why not to purchase a your product or service.
• Humour: Making the consumer laugh, make you more likeable and memorable. Your advertised lines should be short.
• Repetition: Repeating key elements will bring good results.
• Exigency: Convincing the consumer that time is of the essence. Limited-time only offers, fire sales, and the likes are the commonest ways to do this, but again, avoid meaningless phrases that will slip under your customers' radar.
• Know the customer. Even the cleverest ad won't work if it doesn't appeal to the target audience. Are you looking for a certain age group? Do you want people with a set income level? Or maybe you're looking for a population with a special interest? Whatever it is, try to get a clear picture of who your dream consumer is and why he or she would be interested in what you're advertising.
• Keep your target consumer in mind when you're developing the tone and look of your ad. Remember: it needs to appeal to your audience as much as possible and avoid offending or talking down to them. Kids tend to be over-stimulated, meaning you will need to grab their attention on multiple levels (colour, sound, imagery). Young adults appreciate humour and tend to respond to trendiness and peer influence.

Adults will be more discerning and respond to quality, sophisticated humour, and value.

While the whole point of making your slogan different is to think out of the box, there are a few basic things that need to be kept in mind.

• Choose the words smartly, and be mindful of the vocabulary
• It should be easy to read
• Must convey the message, while being easy to remember
• Keep it short, as short slogans create impact
• Must have relevant content

In advertising nothing is left to chance - definitely not the choice of words!

There are a number of effective ways to plant messages firmly into customers' brains, here are some of them:

1. Power of Three (If you understand the power of three, you can use it effectively in your marketing. You can offer three brand levels at three different price points of the same company)
2. Quotations
3. Imperative forms/comparatives
4. Simplification/Abbreviations
5. Direct speech
6. Rhyme/alliteration
7. Surprise/Provocation

(1) POWER OF THREE - THE TRIPARTITE MOTTO

Hendiatris (Greek for one through three) is a figure of speech used for emphasis, in which three words are used to express one idea.

The certainly most common "tool" of any kind of advertising (commercial, political, rhetorical,...).

Later brain research proves that the human brain tends to organise information into groups of three.

Example: Grace - Space - Pace (Jaguar)

(2) QUOTATIONS

Sayings of famous people or quotes from literary works are frequently implemented into advertising.

Sometimes directly, sometimes slightly altered.

Example: Veni, vidi, Visa (adapted from Cesar, veni, vidi, vici!)

(3) IMPERATIVES, COMPARATIVES,

QUESTIONS

Grammatical structures are also included in the tool-box of advertisers.

No battery is stronger longer! (Duracell)

What else? (Nescafe)

(4) SIMPLIFICATIONS/ABBREVIATIONS

Advertisers are rather creative when it comes to making speech easier and shorter.

Example: I'm lovin it!, Toys 'R' Us

(5) RHYME/ALLITERATION

Speech patterns like these are used to make slogans even more memorable. An alliteration is a sequence of words that all start with the same letter.

Example: 02 can do!, Snickers satisfies!

(6) SURPRISE/PROVOCATION

The unexpected is always a successful way to be remembered.

Example: You don't have to be silly to drink TK, but it helps! (Taylor Keith, red lemonade)

Geiz ist geil! / !

GRAPHS

Graphs, charts, and tables are ways of presenting information. Graphs and charts are pictures which show numbers or figures, and tables are just rows and columns of information.

This is a table. It shows the population of the world's top ten cities in 2011.

 1 Tokyo Japan 32,450,000 2 Seoul South Korea 20,550,000 3 Mexico City Mexico 20,450,000 4 New York City USA 19,750,000 5 Mumbai India 19,200,000 6 Jakarta Indonesia 18,900,000 7 Sao Paulo Brazil 18,850,000 8 Delhi India 18,680,000 9 Osaka/ Kobe Japan 17,350,000 10 Shanghai China 16,650,000

One of the most important things to do is get the main idea of the graph. First, identify the main features of the graph. What is happening? What are the biggest numbers? If it is a time graph, what are the biggest changes? What are the trends?

Ideally you need to find one main idea and, if possible, one or two smaller ideas.

• Don't have too much information
• Don't analyse or explain everything in the graph
• Don't go from left to right, explaining everything. Instead pick the main ideas.
• Use the biggest and next biggest - don't mention everything in between.
• Don't mention the small or unimportant stuff
• Pick an idea and find information that supports it

Study the graph below. Print it out. Write on it. Circle the important points - beginnings, endings, sudden changes, low points, high points, trends, averages, differences between lines, differences over time.

The graph shows US sports players' salaries in dollars. In 1970, baseballers earned $125,000 a year, footballers' salaries averaged$99,000 a year, and basketball players earned about \$43,000 annually.

Main ideas

• All salaries increased
• Big differences between 1970 and 2000 for all sports
• Basketball was biggest in 2000, followed by baseball
• In 1970, basketball was the lowest, baseball was the highest
• There was a sudden rise beginning in 1980
• There was another sharp rise for all sports in 1990 Salaries in football began to level off or even fall from 1995 onwards
• Salaries in football began to level off or even fall 1995 onwards

GROUPING INFORMATION

Sometimes there is just too much information in a graph. You may need to group information. Grouping information means putting two or three similar or related things together.

This makes it easier for the reader to understand. It is also less work for you, because you can put more than one piece of information in a sentence.

MAKE GROUPS

For example, you might be able to divide a list into three groups. Often there is one group at the top, one in the middle, and one at the bottom. Look at the graph below, which shows the number of Internet users in European countries in 2000.

Number of Internet Users per 100 people

Possible groups could be:

• Top: Finland, Sweden, Netherlands, and Denmark (about 40 users per hundred)
• Group 2: Germany, Austria, UK (about 20 to 25 users per hundred)
• Group 3: Ireland, Belgium, France and Italy (14-16 users)
• Group 4: Spain, Portugal, Greece (less than 10% Internet users)

CONSTRUCTING GRAPHS

Purposes

Graphs are:

• a way of exploring the relationships in data
• a way of displaying and reporting data, making it easier to report patterns and relationships, shapes of distributions, and trends.

Structure

Any graph used to report findings should show:

• the significant features and findings of the investigation in a fair and easily read way
• the underlying structure of an investigation in terms of the relationships between and within the variables the units of measurement
• the number of readings (though sometimes these will be in the accompanying text)
• the range and interval of readings, where appropriate.

It is good practice (but only a convention) to put the dependent variable on the horizontal (x) axis and the independent on the vertical (y) axis.

BAR GRAPHS

Bar graphs should be used for categorical, ordered, and discrete variables. If the number of units in a discrete variable is large it may be displayed as a continuous variable.

LINE GRAPHS

Line graphs should be used for continuous variables.

PIE GRAPHS

Pie graphs (sometimes called pie or circle charts) are used to show the parts that make up a whole. They can be useful for comparing the size of relative parts. Because it is difficult to compare different circle graphs, and often hard to compare the angles of different sectors of the pie, it is sometimes better to choose other sorts of graphs.

HISTOGRAMS

Use histograms when y-axis gives the frequency of, or occurrences for continuous data that has been sorted into groups, for example, 20-24 metres. All bars are usually of equal width. They can be turned into line graphs by connecting the middle of the top section of each vertical bar. Histograms are not joined up bar graphs and should not be used for categoric data (unless the number of units in each group is large)

WHAT A GRAPH CAN TELL YOU

On a graph you get an overall shape of a variable or the relationships between variables.

A line graph represents a numerical or mathematical relationship and so has more information "buried" in it than other graphs.

Line graphs can sometimes be used to make predictions for values that were not measured, by interpolating or extrapolating the trend, or by looking at the shape.

Limitations

• Graphs can tell you a lot about the design of an investigation, but they don't tell you everything. For example, they don't usually tell you which variables were controlled, the sample size, or the method of measurement. So there are lots of questions to ask to find out about validity and reliability, and also about the actual context of the investigation.
• The scales on the axes can be stretched or shrunk to emphasise one side of a relationship or to make a point that may not be justified by the data.
• A graph implies a relationship but not necessarily a cause. For example, a graph may show that houses cost less in March than they did in February, but it does not show why this happened. We may infer it is because the interest rates have gone up.

 GRAPHS: VOCABULARY Movement (Verbs) Up ·                Rose ·                Went up ·                Increased ·                Grew ·                Shot up ·                Surged ·                Rocketed · Movement (Verbs) Down ·                Fell ·                Declined ·                Dropped ·                Decreased ·                Sank ·                Went down ·                Plunged ·                Plummeted Prepositions ·                Between 1995 and 2000 ·                From 1995 to 2000 ·                Sales rose from 200 to 250 ·                Sales fell to 150 in March ·                Sales fell by 50% · Adverbs and Intensifiers ·                slightly ·                a little ·                a lot ·                sharply ·                gradually ·                steeply ·                steadily ·                gently No Movement (Verbs with Adjectives, Verbs) ·                remained steady ·                were unchanged ·                did not change ·                remained constant ·                remain stable ·                stabilised Tops and Bottoms ·                reached a peak ·                peaked ·                reached their highest level ·                fell to a low ·                sank to a trough ·                reached a bottom

Example:

Passengers at a London Underground Station

London Underground station passengers

The graph shows the fluctuation in the number of people at a London underground station over the course of a day.

The busiest time of the day is in the morning. There is a sharp increase between 06:00 and 08:00, with 400 people using the station at 8 o'clock. After this the numbers drop quickly to less than 200 at 10 o'clock. Between 11 am and 3 pm the number rises, with a plateau of just under 300 people using the station.

In the afternoon, numbers decline, with less than 100 using the station at 4 pm. There is then a rapid rise to a peak of 380 at 6pm. After 7 pm, numbers fall significantly, with only a slight increase again at 8pm, tailing off after 9 pm.

Overall, the graph shows that the station is most crowded in the early morning and early evening periods.

The Vocabulary of Numbers

There are some special words for numbers, fractions and percentages.

Look at the following table which shows a number in different years (1990-1995):

1990                         1995

1200                         1800

You could describe the above table using numbers, fractions or percentages:

• The number went up by 600, from 1200 to 800. (Number)
• The number went up by half, from 1200 to 1800. (Fraction)
• The figure went up by 50%, from 1200 to 1800. Percentage)
• The figure went up 50%, to 1800. (Percentage)

1992         1994      1996      1998

500           1000       3000       12000

Use "trebled," "-fold, "and "times:"

• The number doubled between 1992 and 1994.
• The number trebled between 1994 and 1996.
• The figure quadrupled from 1996 to 1998
• There was a twofold increase between 1992 and 1994.
• The figure went up sixfold between 1992 and 1996.
• The figure in 1996 was three times the 1992 figure.
• The figure in 1998 was four times the 1996 figure.

1992         1994       1996      1998

1000         800        400        100

Use Fractions:

• Between 1992 and 1994, the figure fell by one-fifth.
• Between 1994 and 1996, the number dropped by a half.
• The figure in 1998 was one-tenth the 1992 total.

Vocabulary Tips

• Don't repeat verbs
• Before you start to write, make a list of synonyms (words with the same meaning)
• See how many ways you can rephrase the title of the graph. Use one in the introduction and another in the conclusion with the same meaning
• Be careful with prepositions. They can make a big difference in meaning. For example, "rose by" is very different from "rose to." Learn your verbs with the preposition that goes with them.

TYPES OF GRAPHS

• You are likely to meet only two types of graphs in English tests - time and comparison graphs. (Sometimes you can get both in the same test!)
• In time graphs you have to describe changes over time.
• In comparison graphs you have to compare different items - countries, people, products, places, etc.

The vocabulary for each kind of graph is different:

In time graphs you use time vocabulary to describe change: rose, fell, declined, shot up, increased, remained steady, etc.

In comparison graphs you compare: twice as much as, more than, less than, the same amount, both X and Y have the same figure, etc.

Time Graphs

Example:

Here is a time graph.

You have to compare different methods of transport used in the US over the last century - train, bus and air.

• train (because it is the oldest method)
• by air (because it is the biggest method of public transport today.)
• However, don't start with bus because it is very small and not the main idea

The main trend with rail transport is that it rose to a peak in the 1920s and 1930s and then declined.

The main trend with air is that it started late, in the 1960s, but it has shot up to become by far the biggest carrier of passengers.

Comparison Graphs

Example:

Here is a comparison graph.

You have to compare the amount of water used for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes.

• by country (make groups, e.g. Saudi Arabia and Oman, which have mainly agricultural use, then Bahrain and Kuwait which have mainly domestic use, etc.)
• by use (Agriculture, then Domestic, then Industrial.)

If you decide to write by describing use, you could start with Agriculture because it is the biggest user. Group together Saudi Arabia and Oman as the top users, and then group UAE and Qatar as the middle group of users, using 60% of water for agriculture. Finally mention Bahrain and Kuwait.

Your second paragraph should be about Domestic use, the use of water in the home, because it is the second biggest use. Start with Kuwait and Bahrain (grouped together) (more than 50%) and then write about Qatar and the UAE.

Before you Begin

Underline key words. Write related words - turn nouns into verbs, verbs into nouns, adjectives into adverbs, etc. Write opposite words, similar words, synonyms, etc. Circle and highlight the graph. Use arrows. Make notes. Circle the biggest, the smallest, stable or unchanging parts, sudden increases, etc.

Identify trends. A trend is the overall idea of the graph

• what is happening/what happened the main change over time
• the most noticeable thing about the graph
• the pattern over time
• the pattern for different places or groups or people.

While you Write: Layout

Introduction

• First sentence: Describe the graph. You can use some slightly different words or word forms from those on the question paper, but be careful to give the full information. Start "The graph shows"
• Second sentence: This gives the trend or trends. You can put two trends in this sentence or only one – you could keep the other one for the conclusion. Start "Overall, Paragraph 1: Trend 1
• Start with a sentence with no number. "City size increased sharply over the period." "The most obvious trend in the graph is that women are having fewer babies." "Oil production has increased slightly in all the countries in the graph".
• Follow this sentence with an example (sentence with number) and perhaps another example (another sentence with number). Keep alternating.

Paragraph 2: Trend 2

• Start with a sentence with no number. "City size increased sharply over the period."
• Give an example (sentence with number) and perhaps another example (Sentence with number)
• Finish by repeating the main trends, or identify a second trend. Use different vocabulary.
• Don't have any numbers in the conclusion (you could use words like "most", "the majority" "a minority", "a small number").
• Don't give an opinion.

While You Write: Some Don'ts

• Don't describe the X and Y axis. Give the information.
• Don't write about everything on the graph. Pick the biggest, the smallest, the main points, the main trends. Group similar things together
• Don't write about the line or the bar: "The line went up," "The bar went down." Instead, write about the idea. "The number of people going to work by train increased gradually." "Oil production shot up in 1965"
• Make sure you write about the idea. Don't use shorthand: "Men went up." "Women went down." Instead, write about the real data: "The number of men at university fell dramatically," "The percentage of female students getting a degree rose suddenly."
• Don't use "I feel", "as I have written," "as you can see," etc. Keep it academic.
• Don't start sentences with But, So, Also, And, For, Since, Because, Although
• Go ahead and write four paragraphs or at least three (intro, body, and conclusion).

Word Length and Sentence Length

Make sure you have 150 words. You should have some short sentences (about 6-10 words) and some long ones (12-18) words, but your average should be about 12 or 13 words per sentence.

A sentence without a number will usually be short. Use a mix - a sentence without a number followed by a sentence or two with a number.

IMAGES

The word image is in the broader sense means any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, or a painting. In this wider sense, images can also be rendered manually, such as by drawing, the art of painting, carving, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods, especially in a pseudo-photograph.

A volatile image is one that exists only for a short period of time. This may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a projection of a camera obscura, or a scene displayed on a cathode ray tube. A fixed image, also called a hard copy, is one that has been recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process.

A mental image exists in an individual's mind, as something one remembers or imagines. The subject of an image need not be real; it maybe an abstract concept, such as a graph, function, or "imaginary" entity. A still image is a single static image, as distinguished from a kinetic image. This phrase is used in photography, visual media and the computer industry to emphasise that one is not talking about movies, or in very precise or pedantic technical writing such as a standard.

Our ancestors used pictures and images to communicate. The advertising world has always relied on powerful imagery to tell a marketing story and then there is that old saying: "A picture is worth a thousand words".

Proper Usage of Images

Obviously this growing trend means we need to use visuals to do more of the talking for us. But along with this growing popularity is the proper usage of images in your marketing efforts. Here are five usage guidelines for you to consider.

1. Use an appropriate image for the message -You want to use a visual that serves as cues and support for the points you're making in your brochure, your blog post, ad or website. The image should extend the conversation, not confuse. This is another way of saying stay away from the pretty photo you took of the city skyline that has nothing to do with your topic. Shop for a visual that supports what it is your have to say.
2. Use the most attractive image possible to tell the story - This doesn't mean you need to hire a professional photographer, steal photos from online sources or become a Photoshop wizard. With today's technology, almost anyone can take a captivating photo of a product, a store front or of a customer. Often simple cropping and a little colour enhancement can turn an okay photo into a really cool one.
3. Let the image do its work - When using an image to convey your marketing message, don't hide its impact under the weight of more words. Give it room to communicate.
4. Select images that align with your audience - This is the number one rule in communications and while it sounds obvious, you'd be surprised how often it is abused. Remember, you're trying to reach your audience. Just because you love photos, it doesn't mean the images connect with your business or consumer audiences. Pick images that do connect.
5. Stick to a visual style and be consistent - The visuals you use not only support your message and marketing. They also say something about YOU, about YOUR business, about YOUR style. By sticking to one visual style, you'll be sending a strong, consistent message and not a hodgepodge of messages. Images play an important role in all communications, as long as they are appropriate to the audience and to your message.

Description: This advertisement shows a simple grey car in a grey background. The big words say, "The Only One You'll Need." The smaller text says, "Experience the freedom and peace of mind knowing you've made a great investment. Essentially, you are buying a car for life. Twenty years from now it will still get you from point A to B."

Interpretation: It seems that the message is clear that this car will last a long time. The text, "Experience the freedom and peace of mind knowing you've made a great investment," seems to speak to older people who think responsibly about their purchases. It seems to say that this is the smart thing to do. Also, when it says that it gets you from "Point A to B" seems to mean that the most important consideration in buying a car is reliability Because of this, this ad is definitely meant for older people (age 50+).