**Category : **7th Class

**Learning Objectives:**

- To learn about a definite relationship between elements.
- To learn how to obtain a figure with the help of preceding figure.

The word "series" is defined as anything that follows to forms a specific pattern or in continuation of a given pattern or sequence.

In this type of non-verbal test, two sets of figures pose the problem. The sets are called problem Figures and Answer Figures. Each problem figure changes in design from the preceding one. The answer figure set contains 4 figures marked (a), (b), (c), (d). You are required to choose the correct answer figure, which would best continue the series.

** **

**TYPE I**

A definite relationship between elements in given figures.

**Example 1:**

Study the problem figures marked A, B and C carefully and try to establish the relationship between them.

From the answer figures marked (a), (b), (c) and (d), pick out the figure which most appropriately completes the series.

**Problem Figures**

**Answer Figures**

**Solution:** (d) Note the direction of arrow which changes alternately. The dots are also changing alternately. Hence we are looking for a figure in which the arrow points down and the dots positioned as in figure (b).

**Example 2: **

**Problem Figures**

**Answer Figures**

**Solution:**(b) The four boxes are changing position in the following way: At first, middle boxes change position (diagonally) and extreme boxes remain stationary, then extreme boxes change position and middle boxes remain stationary and so on.

**Example 3: **

**Problem Figures**

**Answer Figures **

**Solution:** (c) The same figures rotates up-side-down in alternative figures.

**Example 4: **

**Problem Figures**

**Answer Figures**

** Solution:** (d) The figures is rotated at 90° (in four directions) and the fifth figure in the series will be same as the first figure.

**Examples 5:**

** Problem Figures**

** Answer Figures**

** Solution:** (a) The bigger ball's diameter is moving at \[90{}^\circ \] and smaller balls diameter is moving at \[45{}^\circ ,\]simultaneously the slope of the bigger figure get reversed.

**TYPE II.**

** Additions of Elements:** In these type of questions, each figure is obtained by either sustaining the element of preceding figure as it is or adding a part of element or one element or more than one element of the preceding figure in a systematic way.

**Example 6:**

** Problem Figure **

**Answer Figure**

**Solution:** (d) Two line segments are added in A to obtain B and one line segment is added in B to obtain C. This process is repeated again to obtain D. Hence, answer figure (d) continues the series.

**TYPE III.**

In these questions the items in the diagrams either increase or decrease in number.

**Example 7:**

** Problem Figures**

**Answer Figures**

** Solution:** (c) The small circles are decreasing consecutively and the black dots are increasing.

** Example 8: **

**Problem Figures**

**Answer Figures**

**Solution:** (d) Signs of plus are adding up one by one. Figure (A) has one plus signs. Figure (B) has two signs, figures (C) has three signs, the next figure should have four signs to keep the same pattern.

**Example 9:**

** Problem Figures**

** Answer Figures**

**Solution:** (d) Here a decreasing trend is followed. In figure A there are 8 lines cutting through the outer line of the sphere. Second figure has 7 lines. The third figure has 6 lines. To continue the series, fourth should have 5 lines. Line is disappearing one by one in opposite side.

**TYPE IV**

**Deletion of Elements:** In these type of questions, each figure is obtained by either sustaining the element of preceding figure as it is or deleting a part of element or one element or more than one element of the preceding figure in a systematic way.

**Example 10:**

** Problem Figure**

**Answer Figure**

**Solution:** (a) From A to B left bottom side dot disappeared similarly B to C opposite side of dot get disappeared, from figure C to D line segment get disappeared. Following same pattern (a) would be correct choice.

**TYPE V**

The qualitative characteristic of various elements in the diagrams change to complete the series. Rotation Type: The various elements in the diagrams move in a specific manner. They may rotate in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction.

**Example 11: **

**Problem Figures**

** Answer Figures**

**Solution:** (d) The sign of plus is rotating clockwise. The pin changes direction alternately.

**Example 12:**

**Problem Figures**

** Answer Figures**

**Solution:** (b) The topmost figures is stationary and rest of the figure change their size and position (In the group of two figures)

**Example 13: **

**Problem Figures**

Answer Figures

**Solution:** (b) Left (triangle) become bigger and right figure (triangle) become smaller.

**TYPE VI**

**Replacement of Elements:** In these type of questions, each figure is obtained by either sustaining the element of preceding figure as it is or replacing a part of element or one element or more than one element by a new element of the preceding figure in a systematic way.

**Example 14: **

**Problem Figure**

**Answer figure**

**Solution:** (c) The elements positioned at north-east (NE) comers disappear from the odd-numbered figures. The elements positioned at the south-west (SW) comers disappear from the even-numbered figures. Therefore * should not appear in the answer figure. Hence (a), (b) and (e) cannot be the answers. Also new elements are introduced at the (NE) comers in even-numbered figures and (SW) comer in odd-numbered figures. Hence, answer (d) is ruled out. Therefore answer figure (c) continues the given series.

**TYPE VII**

** Multi-Relation Series:** These are mixed series in which various elements in diagrams increase /decrease in number change/positions in a set pattern.

**Example 15: **

**Problem Figures**

**Answer Figures**

**Solution:** (c) Dot moves clockwise and the arrow moves in and out in opposite direction alternately (in a group of two figures). The circle and square interchange.

*play_arrow*NON-VERBAL SERIES

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