Category : Banking
The Internet is a massive body of networks, a networking infrastructure. Protocol) to serve billions of users worldwide. So, TCP/IP can be cried Internet is often called "The Information Highway." that implies that there is a straight, clear path of obtaining information. It connects thousand independent. Through telephone wires. Fiber optical cable and satellite links. Internet users can share variety of information. Such as meter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), during 1991-1993 commercial use of Internet took its speed. For the first time, on 15 August 1995 VSNL (Vides Sanchar Nigam Limited) and political part\ of India is Bharatiya Ajanta Party, which created its own by Sikkim state. India's first Hi-speed rural broadband network has been commissioned in district of Idukki, Kerala.
Equipment required for using internet
3. Web Browser
4. Telephone Line
5. Internet service provider (ISP)
Computer: Any good IBM compatible, Macintosh or UNIX compute that has good storage space 4 GB or more hard disk, 32 MB RAM and 300 MHZ processer.
Modem: It is a short form of modulator and demodulator.
To connect Internet through telephone or telecommunications line a modem is required. It is a link between Internet service provider and browser. Our computer sends data in binary code to our modem which converts the binary-coded data to an analogue signal. This data then travels along the telephone network. When the data reaches the destination computer, the modem connected to that computer converts the analogue signal back into Binary coded data which can be read by destination computer. Thus the modem transmits data in pulse form over the network through telephone line needs modem which converts digital signal to analog signal and analog signal to digital signal. The speed of modem measures in EPS (Bits per Second).
There are two types of modems:
(i) External Modem and
(ii) Internal Modem.
The External Modem has to be connected to our computer and telephone line with cables and electric socket while the Internal Modem is already built inside our computer. The billing of our telephone starts from the moment we get connected to Internet. So a modem with good speed ensures low telephone bills.
Web Browser: Web Browser is a software that is used to navigate the World Wide Web. It connects computer to Internet. Before, start working on the Internet, we make sure that we have a web browser in our computer otherwise, we will not be able to surf the net. The most popular types of browser today are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera, Chrome etc. We can get available resources from any location through visit site of that location. Each location has a unique address called URL (Uniform Resource Locator), which we type Web Browser to get resources.
Internet Service Provider (ISP): ISP is an organization that provide Internet access to users. If we have a computer with a web browser, a mode and a telephone line connected to our computer, we also need an Internet in India, Internet connection was only available through VSNL (Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited). Now, we can choose from popular Internet service providers of India such as VSNL, BSNL, and Satyam online. Mantra on Line, MTNL etc. These companies have DNS servers in different cities of India. DNS server is a computer which translates domain name to IP address. At present BSNL provides the following types of connections to access Internet to users.
1. PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network
2. ISDN: Integrated Services digital Network
3. Leased line access
4. Direct Internet Access (DIAS)
5. Account free Internet dial up access based on CLI
6. Broadband connection: Broadband service is based on DSL technology (on the same copper cable that is used for connecting telephone).This Provides high speed Internet connectivity up to 8 Mbps. This provides continuous Internet access service with speed ranging from 256 Kbps to Mbps
7. Wi-Fi: Wi-Fi Services have been introduced for providing high speed internet access at convenient public location such as like airports, railway Stations, Universities and their campus etc.
8. Sancharnet Card: BSNL has also launched "SANCHARNET CARD" recently the sanhet card is a prepaid internet access card users
Browser the website using Web Browser: The homepage is the first page of L7RL that automatically loads, when a web browser starts or when the browser's "home" button I pressed. Homepage is a main page of website, which acts as a doorway to the rest of the website pages. We can select a homepage according to our choice or keep it blank. Now, we type the URL of specific websites in address and services of that websites. We use BACK button to go one page back of current page and FORWARD button to go one page forward of current page. These buttons are only applicable between pages which we have opened. At other URL go to other websites. Website is collection of web pages, images, www.google.com, www.msn.com etc. If we use any site repeatedly then instead of type it again and again we should bookmark it.
Uses of Internet: has become a part of an our life From being used in defiance purposes by the United States military for communication initially, to being used worldwide for hundreds of thousands of different purposes of our everyday life now.
There are millions of applications of Internet and we are in fact as dependent on Internet as we are on other utility things like electricity, water etc. Before a few years, people used to get up in the morning and read the newspaper or watch television. Now most people log onto the Internet first thing in the morning so internet has become so essential in our daily life now
These uses of the Internet
1. Search Engine: It is a specialized program that assists users in locating Information on the web. It can be used to search anything and everything. Most popular search engines are Google, MSN, Lycos, Yahoo, Kho and Cyber 411 etc. Cyber 411 is a mega search engine that queries over a dozen
Major search engines in parallel, then returns queries ranked by relevancy. It gives the search results of 16 parallel queries
2. Online Shopping: Shopping has become easier with the use of Internet. We can buy or sell online. It is an important component of electronic commerce.
3. Net Banking: Net Banking or Internet Banking means banking through internet. It has replaced the conventional way of banking. Now, there is no need to stand in long queues for deposit/withdrawal to check the account status. All these are possible with just a few clicks of a mouse. Marketing of internet.
4. Communication: This is a major role of the Internet. It helps people to communicate either with the use of social networking websites or through e mails or through chatting. A chat is a real time typed conversation that takes place on a computer. Internet telephony allows voice conversation to travel over internet.
5. Job Search: Nowadays, many people search for their jobs online as it is quicker and there is a larger variety of job vacancies present.
6. Hobbies: Those who are having certain hobbies can try to improve on it by reading up on many aspects of their hobby.
7. Research: Research papers are present online which helps in the researcher doing a literature review.
8. Studying: Now right from kindergarten children are exposed to
Internet and computers. They find many useful things to learn on the Internet Though with supervision of the elders. Upto doctorate level education, People rely on Internet for their education. Online educational books have even reduced the need for a library.
9. Usenet: Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet Forums, blogs and mailing lists. The difference, though, is that Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned, that information need not be stored on a remote server, that archives are always available, client. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of e-mail messages. The difference between the two is that Usenet articles message was posted, as opposed to email messages which have one or more specific recipients.
10. File Download and Upload: To download or upload any file to the Internet FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a common way for users, our Web a Web page. Using FTP, we can also update files at a server.
11. Videoconferencing: Videoconferencing is service that allows multiple participants to converse with each other regardless of their location audio and video to bring people at different sites together for a meeting. It's about connecting people. Besides the audio and visual transmission of meeting activities, videoconferencing can be used to share documents, the components required for a videoconferencing are:
1. Video Camera or Webcam
2. Computer System
12. E-commerce (Electronic Commerce): In other words e-commerce is a technology enabled communication of a business organization with it customers and suppliers. It is conducting business through the electronic Media, particularly through paperless IT (information technology) over the internet is allow us to carry out transaction without the barriers of time or distance it minimize the cost of transaction.
13. E-learning: A popular way to learn about computer without ever going to a classroom.
14. E-mail: It is the most widely used application on the Internet. It is simple, very fast and a reliable tool for sending and receiving messages from an individual or a group of people across the world via the internet as similar to writing a letter. In 1971, Ray Tomlinson created the first ARPANE the first free email service launched in June 1996 by Saber Bhatia. Today an e-mail message consists of two part s, the e-mail address and the to a resource. The password should be kept secret from those not allowed access. 'E-mail address' identifies a location to which e-mail messages can mailbox. 'Subject' of e-mail gives information about contents of messages. Email has the option to attach any separate file like image, graph, sound and document etc. from another program that is called attachments. The draft folder retains copies of messages that have started but are not ready to send. E-mail saves time of sending and receiving messages and stamp's cost. At present popular free-mail service provider sites are www.hotmail.com, www.gmail.com www.yahoomail.co.in, www.rediffmail -corn and www.india.corn etc. Junk e-mail or unsolicited e-mail is known as Spam. It is unwanted messages or advertisements with e-mails which is not requested by users.
15. On-line Entertainment: It allow us to visit on-line an electronic or museum or favorite movies or songs, story books, puzzles, computer
Internet related terms
1. URL: URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is a standard way to locate a resource such as file or document on the Internet. The URL specifies the address of a file and every file on the Internet has a unique address. Every URL consists of three parts. The first part of the URL contains the name of the protocol to be used to access the file resource, the other is IP address or domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet. Such as a URL is http://www.hotmail.com in which http is protocol and located. The actual URL is a set of four numbers separated by periods. An example of this would be 126.96.36.199 but as these are difficult for humans to use, addresses are represented in alphanumeric form that is more descriptive and easy to remember. The Internet Domain Name System translates the
2. World Wide Web (WWW): It is commonly known as Web, is a way of Berners-Lee played an active role to develop the World Wide Web. World a vast collection of information related pages called web pages. Web pages are written in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) computer Language. And navigate between them using hyperlinks. Mouse pointer appears like a hand when it points to a hyperlink. A hyperlink which is often called link then it makes available the resources of linked web pages. To reload a web page, we use reload button.
3. Web Server: For a web site to be available to everyone all over world at all times, it needs to be stored or hosted on a computer. Such a computer and can send web pages out to other computers over Internet. But an I.P. address. If the I.P. address changes, the web site would not be found site'
4. Bookmark: A bookmark is a saved link to a Web page that has been added to a list of saved links. When we are looking at a particular Web site
And want to be able to quickly get back to it later, we can create a bookmark in the address every time we should bookmark it.
5. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language): It is a computer's language used to create hypertext documents for the World Wide Web. Web pages are created using HTML. The table tag in HTML has two properties known as cellspacing and cell padding. Cellspacing is the pixel width between the individual data cell in the table. Cell padding is the pixel space between the cell contents and the cell border.
6. TCP/IP (transmission Control protocol/ Internet protocol) IP is the communication protocol for the Internet, it defines the rule which computers must follow to communicate with each other over the Internet. Exchange and manipulate files over the Internet.
7. FTP (File transfer protocol): It is a standard network protocol used to exchange an file over the manipulate represents the network functionality that enables users to upload web page files like simple text files, images, multi-media files, etc. from their personal computers to the server where their websites are located and vice versa - to download files from a particular server their own machines.
8 HTTHP: It is short for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are transmitted, and what action For example, when we enter a URL in our browser, this actually sends a HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page.
9. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol): It is one of the main Protocols of the internet protocol suite. It is used by network devices, like routers to send error messages.
10. IP address: The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255, For example, 188.8.131.52 could be an IP address. It is an identifier for a computer on a TCP/IP network.
11. Domain Name: Domain names are specific names used in URL to identify particular Web pages. A name that identifies one or more IP Addresses. For example, in the URL http: www.hotmail.com, the domain top level domain it belongs to. There is only a limited number of such Domain.
: Government agencies
: organization (nonprofit)
: Educational institute
: commercial Business
: Network Organization
: Business organization
12. Upload: The term upload can refer to the sending of data from a local system to a remote system such as the remote system should store a copy of the data being transferred. When we are sending the copy of file from our system to a remote system by using Internet, then we are uploading the files.
13. Downloading: The term download cab refer to the sending of data from a local system ta a remote system such as the remote system should store a copy of the data being transfer when we are sending the file of the file by using Internet, then we are downloading the files. Software piracy is the act of copying or down loading a program from a network and making multiple copies of it.
14. Gateway: A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. A gateway can accept a packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol before forwarding it
15. Flash: is a vector animation software originally design to create animations for display on web pages. It is a small application Thai allows animations, interactive forms, games etc. It is to be embedded in web pages.
16. Web Surfing: Internet is a necessity for today's computer users. It is the world's largest encyclopedia. Whatever we need, we can find it and download it over the Internet, often for free. To search and explore the resources from websites which we need is called web surfing. Web surfing is usually seen as fun dangerous or a tremendous waste of time.
17. Virus: a computer virus is a computer program that can load and replicate itself without even the user knowing about the damage being done, it infects a computer system. It replicates by being copied and uses all or document. If our computer keeps rebooting itself, then it is likely that if has a virus. It can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail or in downloaded file and it is the most common way to get a virus in computer. So, if we get an e-mail from unknown user we should erase it without opening. It is a program designed to destroy data on computer system sometimes deliberately destructive such as erasing files, formatting hard disks or allowing others to access the machine without authorization across DOS cannot retrieve any data from the dist. File allocation table provides a map of clusters in which the file has been stored.
Viruses are categorized to several parts based on then features
(a) Boot Sector Viruses
(b) Macro Viruses
(c) Multipartite Viruses
(d) Link Virus
(e) Parasitic Virus
(g) Trojans or Trojan horses
To prevent detect and remove this computer virus a software is used which is called antivirus. Such software may also prevent and remove adware, spyware and other forms of malware. It also provide the facility before downloading from internet if virus activates then it informs the user by pop-up window and after that user removes it by system scan. To protect from virus the computer system needs periodically full scan.
The first actual computer virus was the Creeper, which first showed up on a very early edition of the Internet, the ARPANET. 'Happy Birthday Joshi', virus was first discovered in India in June 1990. Brain was the first virus to hit computers running Microsoft's then popular operating system MS-DOS. Elk Cloner is regarded as the first virus to hit personal computers worldwide, it spread through Apple II floppy disks, some computer virus are
18. Hacker: A person who used his or her expertise to get access to other people's computers to get information illegally or do damage for personal Gain
19. Phishing: Phishing is a way of attempting to obtain sensitive information such as username, password and credit card details. Phishing email disguised as an official request for information from the targeted company. They also create a lookalike website that is designed to closely resemble the target company official site.
Multimedia: We use to different medium to say any information to others these mediums can be text, sound, pictures, animation, and video presentation medium or the combination of text sound, pictures, animation, and video.
Hardware and Software requirement for Multimedia: system, the required various hardware/software components the basic elements of multimedia on a computer are:
1. Graphics Accelerator Card
2. Sound Card
3. CD-ROM Drive
6. Multimedia Software
Elements of Multimedia: The elements of multimedia are the following
1. Text: Text is the most fundamental element of any multimedia project. Of all multimedia elements, text is the easiest to manipulate. It is used to add special visual effects to text to create a more appealing presentation by using special tools such as bold, blink and underline etc.
2. Graphics: Graphics can be added into a multimedia project in the form of photographs or designs. It can be imported from a variety of resources such as the Internet, a digital camera, a scanner etc. Original graphic designs also can be created with the help of graphic applications. It is used to inform about anything to people easily because image can say more than text.
3. Sound: Sound can be added to a multimedia presentation from a variety of sources. Original sounds can be also recorded using a microphone and programs such as HyperStudio, MovieWorks, or SmartSound
4. Video: Moving images or video can be incorporated into a multimedia project as Quick-Time movies.
5. Animation: It is a group of graphics images that contain movement and look like a movie. It is used for making cartoon film, video game etc.
Uses of Multimedia
1. Entertainment: Multimedia is used in the entertainment industry especially to develop special effects in movies and animations. It is also used in video games.
2. Education and Training: In Education and training multimedia used to produce computer-based training courses and reference books like
Encyclopedia and almanacs.
3. Engineering: Software engineers may use multimedia in Computer Simulations for anything from entertainment to training information to shareholders, superiors and co-workers.
4. Business Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee training, advertising and selling products
All over the world through unlimited web-based technologies.
5. Mathematical and Scientific Research: In Mathematical and Scientific
6. Medicine: In medicine, doctors can get trained by looking at a virtual surgery or they can simulate how the human body is affected by diseases.
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