UPSC Ecology And Environment Climate Notes - Climate Change

Notes - Climate Change

Category : UPSC

 

Climate Change

 

Introduction

The year 2015-16 was important for climate change both at domestic and global level. It was started with the groundwork of the third National Communication (NATCOM) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the release of the Biennial Update Reports (BURs). It has been clear that human influence is there in the climate system and the recent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are the highest in history. Recent climate changes have had widespread impacts on human and natural systems.

 

Change in the Climate System

Warming of the climate system is clear and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are:

  • atmosphere and ocean have warmed
  • the amounts of snow and ice have diminished
  • sea level has rise
  • Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth's surface than any preceding decade since 1850.
  • The period almost 30 years from 1983 to 2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years in the Northern Hemisphere, where such assessment is possible.
  • The globally averaged combined land and ocean surface-temperature data as calculated by a linear trend show a warming of \[0.85[0.65\,to\,1.60]{}^\circ C\]over the period 1880 to 2012, when multiple independently produced data sets exist (See fig. 1 (a), 1 (b) and 1 (c))

 

Figure 1 (a): Globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature anomaly

 

Note: Annually and globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature anomalies relative to the average over the period 1986 to 2005. Shades indicate different data sets.

Source: IPCCC +

Figure 1 (b): Globally averaged sea level change

 

Note: Annually and globally averaged sea level change relative to the average over the period 1986 to 2005 in the

Longest - running dataset. Shades indicate different data sets. All datasets are aligned to have the same value in 1993, the first year of satellite altimetry data. Where assessed, uncertainties are indicated by shades.

Source: IPCC

 

Figure 1 (c): Global anthropogenic \[C{{O}_{2}}\] emissions

Quantitative information of \[C{{H}_{4}}\]and \[{{N}_{2}}O\]emission time series from 1850 to 1970 is limited

 

Causes of climate change

  • The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have amplified since the pre-industrial era, driven largely by economic and population growth, and are now higher than ever which led to atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide\[(C{{O}_{2}})\], methane \[(C{{H}_{4}})\] and nitrous oxide \[({{N}_{2}}O)\] that are unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years.
  • The effects of GHG together with those of other anthropogenic drivers, have been observed throughout the climate system and are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the detected warming since the mid-20th century.
  • Between the years 1750 and 2011, the cumulative anthropogenic \[C{{O}_{2}}\] emissions to the atmosphere were \[2040\pm \,310GtC{{O}_{2}}\] (Giga tonnes of \[C{{O}_{2}}\] ) out of which about 40% of these emissions have remained in the atmosphere \[(880\pm \,35GtC{{O}_{2}})\]; the rest was removed from the atmosphere and stored on land (in plants and soils) and in the ocean.
  • The ocean alone has absorbed about 30% of the emitted anthropogenic\[C{{O}_{2}}\], causing ocean acidification.
  • About half of the anthropogenic \[C{{O}_{2}}\] emissions between 1750 and 2011 have occurred in the last 40 years.

 

Impacts of climate change

  • In the last few decades, severe changes in climate have caused impacts on human natural eco-systems on all continents and across the oceans.
  • Impacts are due to observed climate change, irrespective of its cause, indicating the sensitivity of natural and human systems to changing climate.
  • Evidence of observed climate change impacts is strongest and most comprehensive for natural systems while in many regions in the world, changing pattern of precipitation or melting snow and ice are altering hydrological balancing systems, affecting water resources in terms of both quantity and quality.
  • Some impacts on human systems have also been ascribed to climate change, with a major or minor impact of climate change discernable from other influences.
  • In response to ongoing climate change much fresh water, terrestrial and marine species have shifted their geographic ranges, migration patterns, seasonal activities, abundances and species interactions in response to ongoing climate change.
  • As per the assessment of many studies, which covers a wide range of regions and crops shows that negative impacts of climate change on crop produces have been more conjoint than positive impacts.
  • Some impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms have been attributed to human influence. Some Examples of impact of climate change

 

Some Examples of impact of climate change

  • Sub-Arctic boreal forests are likely to be particularly badly affected, with tree lines gradually retreating north as temperatures rise.
  • In tropical forests such as the Amazon, where there is abundant biodiversity, even modest levels of climate change can cause high levels of extinction.
  • If global warming remains on its upward path, by 2050 just 5% of Australia's Great Barrier Reef- the world's largest coral reef- will remain.
  • Global warming in the Himalayas has already occurred at three times the global average which is prime snow leopard habitat and continued warming will cause their range to shrink as the tree-line moves higher up the mountains. This will not only fragment and isolate snow leopard populations, but it will severely affect their prey too.

 

India's stand on Climate Change

  • Under the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change (PMCCC) all country's missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) were asked to revisit their plans.
  • The new mission on wind energy, health, waste to energy and coastal areas was also taken up. It also redesigned the National Water Mission and National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture in India.
  • The National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) was made operational in the financial year 2015-16.
  • To develop its institutional capacities and implement state-level activities to address the climate change the State Action Plan on Climate change (SAPCCC) is being prepared.
  • To create and strengthen the scientific and analytical capacity for assessment of climate change in the country different studies under Climate change action programme (CCAP) has been started.
  • During the same financial year 2015-16, many significant bilateral and multilateral meetings and international negotiations on climate change were held.
  • India also submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC.
  • During COP21 Summit in Paris, India Pavilion was set up to showcase and share information on India's act on climate change.
  • In addition, a new online Management Information System (MIS) was launched by the National Clean Development Mechanism Authority (NCDMA).
  • Also, the National Designated Entity (NDE) for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD +) has been established in the climate change division along with the National Designated Entity for Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) and Technology Executive Committee (TEC).

National Communication Submitted to the UNFCCC

  • In an enactment of the reporting obligations under the UNFCCC, India has started to communicate information about the implementation and execution of the convention, taking into account the common but distinguished responsibilities and respective capabilities and specific regional and national development priorities, objectives and circumstances.
  • The elements of information provided in the communication include a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases, a general description of steps taken to implement the Convention including an assessment of impacts and vulnerability, and any other relevant information.
  • The communication is meant to provide the context and the national circumstances inter alia India's geography, imperative of development needs, climate and economy; based on which India would be addressing and responding to the challenges of climate change.
  • India has submitted its second National Communication (NATCOM) to the UNFCCC in 2012 and the second NATCOM provides information of the emissions of Green House Gases (GHG) for the years 2000 and 2007.
  • The Ministry is currently preparing India's third National Communication (TNC) and in this connection a workshop on National Inventory Management System (NIMS) was organized in July 2015.
  • The purpose of this workshop was to provide inputs for establishment of National Inventory Management System (NIMS) and increased accuracy of Green House Gas Inventory preparation with use of higher tier methods.
  • The Biennial Update Reports (BURs) are new reporting obligation under the transparency arrangement of sharing information on implementation of the Convention.
  • The BUR is a form of enhanced reporting, containing updates of national greenhouse gas inventories and information on mitigation actions, financial, technical needs and support received and an update to India’s second National Communication.
  • The first BUR encompassing information on National Circumstance, GHG Inventories for the year 2010. Mitigation Actions, Analysis of Constraints. Gap’s and related financial, technical and capacity needs and other related information along with information on domestic Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) arrangements has been released.

 

National and State Action Plans on Climate Change

  • Indbia's domestic strategy for addressing climate change is reflected in many of its social and economic development programmes like the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) which is coordinated by the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF & CC) is being implemented through the Nodal Ministries in specific sectors/areas.
  • Eight national missions in the area of solar energy, enhanced energy efficiency, sustainable agriculture, sustainable habitat, water, Himalayan eco-system, Green India and strategic knowledge for climate change form the core of NAPCC.
  • All National missions were approved by the Prime

Minister's Council on Climate change (PMCCC) and are at different stages of implementation and the Missions are under constant review of the

Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change.

  • An Executive Committee on Climate Change under the Chairmanship of Principal Secretary to Prime Minister has been set up for assisting the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change in evolving a coordinating response to issues relating to climate change at national level with regular monitoring of the eight national missions along with other initiatives on climate change and coordinating with various agencies on issues relating to climate change.
  • Prime Minister's office has entrusted the responsibility of convening and servicing the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change as well as the Executive Committee on Climate Change to MoEF & CC.
  • The Ministry has also motivated state governments to prepare State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC) which has the aim to create institutional capacities and implement state level activities to address climate change.
  • Till date, 33 states/UTs namely Andaman and Nicobar, Andhra Pradesh including Telangana, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir. Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland. Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh. Maharashtra, Goa have prepared and submitted document on SAPCC.
  • The MoEF & CC is also closely following up with the remaining two states which have not submitted their SAPCCs.

 

National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change

  • The National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) came into force in 2015-16.
  • The fund is meant to assist national and state level activities to meet the cost of adaptation measures in areas that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
  • This scheme has been taken as Central Sector Scheme with the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) as National Implementing Entity (NIE).
  • The overall aim of the fund is to support concrete adaptation activities which are not covered under ongoing schemes of State and National Government that reduce the adverse effects of climate change facing community sector and states.

 

National Water Mission

Mission Objective: To conserve water, minimise wastage and ensure equitable distribution bath across and within states through integrated water resources development and management.

Mission Targets and Timeline: To achieve its objective, the mission targets are:

  • Development of comprehensive water database in public domain and assessment of impact off climate change on water resources.
  • Promotion of citizen and state actions for water conservation, augmentation and preservation.
  • Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas.
  • lncreasewateruseefficiencyby20%.
  • Promotion of basin level integrated water resources management.

Budgetary Requirements and Allocations: The mission requires budgetary support of Rs.89,101 crore (approx. USD 14.4 billion) during the 11th (2007-2012) and 12th (2012-2017) five year plan periods. Proposals for Rs.196 crore (approx. USD 31.6 million) have been approved. Implementation Status: Key achievements to date:

  • Revised National Water Policy (2012) adopted by National Water Resources Council.
  • Created 1,082 new Ground Water Monitoring Wells.

Several capacity building and training programmes, are underway.

 

 

Climate Change Action Programme  

  • The National Action Plan on Climate Change was launched in 2008 which identifies a number of measures that simultaneously advance the country's development and climate change related objectives of adaptation and mitigation.
  • The Ministry is implementing a scheme titled 'Climate Chance Action Programme' (CCAP) since January, 2014, with an objective to create and strengthen the scientific and analytical capacity for assessment of climate change in the country, putting in place appropriate institutional framework for scientific and policy initiatives and implementation of climate change related actions in the context of sustainable development.
  • Total budget for the scheme is 290 crore for the 12th Plan period.
  • In order to enhance understanding of climate change the CCAP includes National Carbonaceous Aerosols Programme (NCAP), Long Term Ecological Observatories (LTEO) and Coordinated Studies on Climate Change for North East Region (CSCCNER).
  • The NCAP is a major activity involving multi-institutional and multi-agency study under which the MoEF & CC will collaborate with the Ministry of Earth Sciences, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), the Ministry of Science and Technology and other associated agencies to enhance the understanding the role of Black Carbon in climate change through monitoring and assessment of the impacts of Black Carbon using modeling techniques.
  • The work programme envisages three Working Groups namely Long Term Monitoring of Aerosol (Working Group-1), Impact of Aerosol on Himalayan Glaciers (Working Group-11) and Modeling of Black Carbon emissions in India and assessment of its impacts (Working Group-Ill).
  • International Negotiations on Climate Change under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change during the financial year 2015-16 many important bilateral and multilateral meetings and international negotiations on climate change were held. These meetings were crucial in the run up to the 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21).
  • The key contributions envisaged in India's INDCs are as follows:
  • to put forward and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation;
  • to adopt a climate friendly and a cleaner path than the one followed hitherto by others at corresponding level of economic development; to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35% by 2030 from 2005 level, etc.

 

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation & Forest Degradation

  • The National Designated Entity (NDE) for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation [NDE (REDD+)] has been established in the Climate Change Division of this Ministry.
  • The key function of NDE will include:
  • identification of possible needs and gaps in coordination of support;
  • improvement for the effectiveness of finance (result-based finance, technology and capacity-building);
  • sharing of information on knowledge, experiences and good practices; exchange of information as per the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) requirements and approval of the national level REDD + proposal for submission to UNFCCC.

 

 

Climate Technology Centre & Network and Technology Executive Committee

  • The National Designated Entity (NDE) for Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) and Technology Executive Committee (TEC) [NDE (CTCN & TCE)] has been established in the Climate Change Division of this Ministry.
  • The key function will include:
  • leading and coordinating the formulation, selection and submission of requests for technology needs assessment and support;
  • facilitating and monitoring the implementation of
  • CTCN response assistance;
  • foster collaboration and access to information and
  • knowledge to accelerate climate technology transfer in the country;
  • strengthen network, partnership and capacity building for climate technology transfer.
  • Ozone Layer Protection Ozone, a triatomic molecule of oxygen is formed from oxygen naturally in the upper levels of the earth's atmosphere by high energy Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun
  • The UV radiation breaks down oxygen molecules, releasing free atoms, some of which bond with other oxygen molecule to form ozone.
  • About 90% of ozone formed in this way lies between 10 and 50 kilometers above the earth's surface, called the Stratosphere.
  • The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone Layer are the international treaties specific for the protection of the Stratospheric Ozone (Ozone layer).
  • The Montreal Protocol has been recognized as the most successful international environmental treaty in history. It has been universally ratified and all the 197 United Nations member countries of the world are the parties to the Vienna Convention and its Montreal Protocol.
  • In the 29 years of operation of the Montreal Protocol, extraordinary international cooperation under this agreement has led to phase-out of production and consumption of several major Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs) such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Carbon tetrachloride (CTC) and halons globally from 1st January, 2010.
  • The production and consumption of Methyl chloroform has been phased out globally by 2015, with possible essential use exemptions.
  • The production and consumption of Methyl bromide was phased out globally in 2016, except use in quarantine and pre-shipment applications.
  • Global systematic observations have confirmed that atmospheric levels of key ODSs are declining and it is estimated that with continued, full implementation of the Montreal Protocol's provisions, the global ozone layer should return to pre-1980 levels by around the middle of this century and the Antarctic ozone around 15 years later.
  • The Montreal Protocol has also delivered substantial climate benefits.

 

India's INDC: Climate Change Contributions

 

  1. To put forward and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.
  2. To adopt a climate friendly and cleaner path than the one hitherto followed by others at a corresponding level of economic development.
  3. To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35% of the 2005 level by 2030.
  4. To achieve about 40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel- based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF)
  5. To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of \[C{{O}_{2}}\] equivalent \[(C{{O}_{2}}eq.)\] through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
  6. To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, the Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management.
  7. To mobilize domestic and new and additional funds from developed countries for implementing these mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resources required and the resource gap.
  8. To build capacities, create a domestic framework and an international architecture for quick diffusion of cutting-edge climate technology in India and for joint collaborative R&D for such future technologies.                      

 

 

Carbon Budget

The Carbon Budget is the expected amount of carbon dioxide \[(C{{O}_{2}})\] the world can emit while still having a likely chance of limiting global temperature rise to \[2{}^\circ C\] above pre-industrial levels. The international scientific community estimates this budget to be 1 trillion tonnes of carbon.

One of the studies appointed by WWF from Ecofys chose to set the anticipated concentration limit at 400 ppm

\[C{{O}_{2}}e\], so as to have a better chance (66% likelihood) of staying below \[2{}^\circ C\] of global warming. The study translates this ppm limit into a global carbon budget for the period 1990 – 2100. (1990 was chosen as the start year because the Kyoto Protocol allows for emission reduction targets against 1990 emissions levels). The study concludes that collectively we can emit no more than about 1600\[Gt\,\,C{{O}_{2}}e\] over the period 1990 – 2100. We have already emitted a significant portion of this global carbon budget in the last 20 years, leaving us with about 870\[Gt\,\,C{{O}_{2}}e\]from 2009 – 2100. After that we need to approach no net emissions.

If we divide this total budget up per year, globally we can emit on average 9.5\[Gt\,\,C{{O}_{2}}e\] per year for the 91 years from 2009. This is about 20% of our current annual global emissions. If we continue our current global 47\[GtC{{O}_{2}}e\]emissions per year, we will use up our remaining budget by about 2030.

 

Paris agreement

  • The 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) successfully concluded in Paris from 30 November to 11 December 2015 after intense negotiations by the Parties followed by the adoption of lie Paris Agreement on post – 2020 actions on climate change.
  • This universal agreement will succeed the Kyoto Protocol. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, it provides a framework for all countries to take action against climate change.
  • Placing emphasis on concepts like climate justice and sustainable lifestyles, the Paris Agreement for the first time brings together all nations for a common cause under the UNFCCC.
  • One of the main focuses of the agreement is to hold de increase in the global average temperature to well below \[2{}^\circ C\] above pre-industrial level and on driving errors to limit it even further to\[{{1.5}^{{}^\circ }}C\]. The Paris Agreement comprises of 29 articles.

 

Salient features of the Paris Agreement

  • The Paris Agreement acknowledges the development imperatives of developing countries by recognizing their right to development and their efforts to harmonize it will the environment, while protecting the interests of the most vulnerable.
  • The Agreement seeks to enhance the 'implementation of the Convention' while reflecting the principles of equity and CBDR-RC, in the light of different national circumstances.
  • Countries are required to communicate to the UNFCCC climate action plans known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) every five years. Each Party’s successive NDC will represent a progression beyond the Party's then current NDC thereby steadily increases global effort and ambition in the long term.
  • The agreement is not mitigation-centric and includes other important elements such as adaptation, loss and damage, finance, technology development and transfer, capacity building and transparency of action and support.
  • Climate action will also be taken forward -in the period before 2020. Developed countries are urged to scale up their level of financial support with a complete road map towards achieving the goal of jointly providing US$ 100 billion by 2020. At the same time, a new collective quantified goal based on US$ 100 billion floor will be set before 2025
  • The Agreement mandates that developed countries provide financial resources to developing countries. Other Parties may also contribute, but on a purely voluntary basis.
  • Developed countries are urged to take the lead in mobilization of climate finance, while noting the significant role of public funds in the mobilization of finance which should represent a progression beyond their previous effort.
  • The Agreement includes a robust transparency framework for both action and support.
  • Starting in 2023, a global stock take covering all elements will take place every five years to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of the Paris Agreement and its long term goals.
  • The Paris Agreement establishes a compliance mechanism, overseen by a committee of experts that operates in a non-punitive way, and is facilitative in nature.

 

India Pavilion at COP-21

 

 

  • An India Pavilion was set up in COP-21 to showcase and share information on India's actions on climate change.
  • The Indian Pavilion in Paris was inaugurated by the Indian Prime Minister on 30th November 2015 and the pavilion hosted 25 sessions, 150 speakers, 130 presentations, over 80 films, 13 book/reports/CDs/films/brochure releases.
  • Pavilion was appreciated and viewed by nearly 6,500 visitors from different countries.
  • Information on India's initiatives was also shared in the form of books or brochures and digital material. India Pavilion was one of the centres of attraction in COP-21 due to its water screen, 360 degree film, ipad forest e-book on India's culture and sustainable living.

 

Green Finance

The term 'green finance' has come in the view in the past few years with the increased focus on green development. The Rio+20 document clearly states what green economy policies should result in and what they should not. While there is no universal definition of green finance, it mostly refers to financial investments flowing towards sustainable development projects and initiatives that encourage the development of a more sustainable economy. Green finance includes different elements like greening the banking system, the bond market and institutional investment. Several working definitions and sets of criteria of green finance have also been developed. Examples include the China's Green Credit Guidelines, the Climate Bonds Taxonomy of Green Bonds, the International Development Finance Club's (IDFC) approach to reporting on green investment, the World Bank/International Finance Corporation's (IFC) Sustainability Framework and the UK Green Investment Bank Policies. An initial review of the current definitions in use reveals sizeable intersections

of the various definitions in thematic areas such as clean energy, energy efficiency, green buildings, sustainable transport, water and waste management, as well as areas of controversy such as nuclear and large-scale hydro energy, biofuels and efficiency gains in conventional power. Over the past decade there have been advances in mainstreaming of green finance within financial institutions and financial markets. Voluntary standards such as the Equator Principles have enhanced environmental risk management for many financial institutions. The World Bank Group has set up an informal "Sustainable Banking Network" of banking regulators, led by developing countries, to promote sustainable lending practices. In 2015, green bonds issued by governments, banks, corporates and individual projects amounted to US$42 billion. Globally, more than 20 stock exchanges have issued guidelines on environmental disclosure, and many green indices and green ETFs (exchange-traded funds) have been developed. The Financial Stability Board (FSB) has established a climate-related financial disclosures task force that was expected to complete its first stage of the work by end-March 2016. A growing number of institutions, including the Bank of England and Bank of China (Industrial and Commercial Bank of China; have begun to assess the financial impact of climate and environmental policy changes. Germany, the US and the UK have developed interest subsidy and guarantee programmes for green financing, and over a dozen government-backed green investment banks are operating globally. The G-20 has also recently set up a green finance study group (GFSG).

One topical issue in the context of green finance is that of enhancing the ability of the financial system to mobilize private green finance, thereby facilitating the green transformation of the global economy which has been widely discussed in different fora including the G20. However, for developing countries like India, private finance will not readily be forthcoming and public finance both international and domestic needs to be used to leverage private finance. Green development is also important for India though green finance is yet to pick up. Attaining the ambitious solar energy target, development of solar cities, setting up wind power projects, developing smart cities, providing infrastructure which is considered as a green activity and the sanitation drive under the 'Clean India' or 'Swach Bharath Abhiyan' are all activities needing green finance. India has created a corpus called the National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) in 2010-11 out of the cess on coal produced/imported ('polluter pays' principle) for the purpose of financing and promoting clean energy initiatives and funding research in the area of clean energy. Some of the projects financed by this fund include innovative schemes like a green energy corridor for boosting the transmission sector, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission's

(JNNSM) installation of solar photovoltaic (SPV) lights (see Figure 3 (b)) and small capacity lights, installation of SPiV water pumpwing systems, SPV power plants, grid-connected rooftop SPV (see Figure 3(c)) power plants and a pilot project to assess wind power potential. So far four banks have issued green bonds in India.

 

Figure 3 (a): Solar Power Budget in India

 

Figure 3 (b) SPV Power Plant at Goshen Drasskargil,

Jammu and Kashmir

 

+

Figure (c) Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore with

Roof-Top Solar Panels

 

Figure 3 (d): Wind Energy Project in Madhya Pradesh

 

Proceeds from these bonds are mostly used for funding renewable energy projects such as solar, wind and biomass projects and other infrastructure sectors, with infrastructure and energy efficiency being considered as green in their entirety. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has also recently approved the guidelines for green bonds. While mobilization and effective use of green finance is of primary importance, there are some issues which need to be taken note of:

 

  • For a developing country like India, poverty alleviation and development are of vital importance and resources should not be diverted from meeting these development needs. Green finance should not be limited only to investment in renewable energy, as, for a country like India, coal based power accounts for around 60% of installed capacity. Emphasis should be on greening coal technology. In fact, green finance for development and transfer of green technology is important as most green technologies in developed countries are in the private domain and are subject to intellectual property rights (IPR), making them cost prohibitive.
  • Green bonds are perceived as new and attach higher risk and their tenure is also shorter. There is a need to reduce risks to make them investment grade.
  • There is also a need for an internationally agreed upon definition of green financing as its absence could lead to over-accounting.
  • While environmental risk assessment is important, banks should not overestimate risks while providing green finance.
  • Green finance should also consider unsustainable patterns of consumption as a parameter in deciding finance, particularly conspicuous consumption and unsustainable lifestyles in developed countries.

 

Marrakech Climate Change Conference - November 2016

  • The twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 22), the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12), and the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 1) were held in Bab Ighli, Marrakech, Morocco from 7 November to 18 November 2016.
  • The Conference successfully demonstrated to the world that the implementation of the Paris Agreement is underway and the constructive spirit of multilateral cooperation on climate change continues.

 

United Nations Climate Change conference

  • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has come into the existence on 21 March 1994. Till date, it has near-universal membership. The 197 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention.
  • The UNFCCC is a "Rio Convention", one of three adopted at the "Rio Earth Summit" in 1992. Its sister Rio Conventions are the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification. The three are intrinsically linked. It is in this context that the Joint Liaison Group was set up to boost cooperation among the three conventions, with the ultimate aim of developing synergies in their activities on issues of mutual concern. It now also incorporates the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.
  • Preventing "dangerous" human interference with the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC,

 

 

List of United Nations Climate Change Conferences known as Conferences of Parties (COP)

 

UN Climate Change Conference

Date and Place

Agenda

Decision/Resolution

COP 1

From 28

March to 7

April 1995

in Berlin,

Germany

·         It voiced concerns about the

adequacy of countries' abilities

to meet commitments under

the Body for Scientific and

Technological Advice (SBSTA)

and the Subsidiary Body for

Implementation (SBI).

·         COP 1 agreed on ?Activities Implemented Jointly? first joint measures in international climate action.

COP 2

July 1996 in Geneva, Switzerland

·         Its ministerial declaration was

noted (but not adopted) on

18 July 1996, and reflected a

United States position statement

presented by Timothy Wirth,

former Under Secretary for

Global Affairs for the United

States Department of State at that meeting.

·         Accepted the scientific findings on climate change preferred by the IPCC in its second assessment (1995).

·         Rejected uniform "harmonized policies" in favor of flexibility.

·         Called for "legally binding mid-term targets".

COP 3

December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan

The greenhouse gas emissions reduction Obligation

·         It adopted the Kyoto Protocol and outlined the greenhouse gas emissions reduction obligation for Annex I countries.

·         Kyoto mechanisms such as emissions trading, clean development mechanism and joint implementation.

·         Annex B countries agreed to legally binding reductions in greenhouse gas emissions of an average of 6 to 8% below 1990 levels between the years 2008-2012.

·         The United States would be required to reduce its total emissions on an average of 7% below 1990 levels.

COP 4

November 1998 in Buenos Aires

The unresolved issues in Kyoto would be finalized at this meeting.

·         The parties adopted a 2-year "Plan of Action" to advance efforts and to devise mechanisms for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, to be completed by 2000.

·         Argentina and Kazakhstan expressed their commitment to take on the greenhouse gas emissions reduction obligation, the first two non-Annex countries to do so.

COP 5

From 25

October to

5 November

1999, in

Bonn,

Germany

Only a Primary a technical meeting

No major conclusion.

COP 6

From 13 November to 25 November 2000, in The Hague, Netherlands.

·        High-level negotiation over the major political issues.

·        The United States' proposal to allow credit for carbon "sinks" in forests and agricultural lands.

·        How   developing   countries could obtain financial assistance to deal with adverse effects of climate change and meet their obligations to plan for measuring and possibly reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

·         Disagreements over consequences tor non-compliance by countries that did not meet their emission reduction targets.

·         Compromises agreed between the United States and some EU countries.

·         Rejected the compromise positions.

·         The talks in The Hague collapsed.

·         Jan Pronk, the President of COP 6, suspended COP-6 without agreement while it was later announced that the COP 6 meetings (termed "COP 6 bis") would be resumed in Bonn, Germany, in the second half of July._____

COP 6

Negotiation resumed)

From 17 July to 27 July 2001 in Bonn, Germany

·         Flexible mechanism

·         Joint implementation

·         Clean Development Mechanism

·         Carbon sinks

·         Compliance

·         Financing

·         It was agreed that' credit would be granted for broad activities that absorb carbon from the atmosphere or store it, including forest and cropland management, and re-vegetation, with no over-all cap on the amount of credit that a country could claim for sinks activities.

·         A cap of 13 million tons could be credited to Japan (which represents about 4 % of its base-year emissions).

·         For cropland management, countries could receive credit only for carbon sequestration increases above 1990 levels.

·         Inclusion of broad outlines of consequences for failing to meet emissions targets that would include a requirement to "make up" shortfalls at 1.3 tons to 1, suspension of the right to sell credits for surplus emissions reductions, and a required compliance action plan for those not meeting their targets.

COP 7

From 29 October to 10 November 2001 in Marrakech, Morocco

·         To work on the Buenos Aires

Plan of Action.

·         Finalising most of the operational details.

·         Setting the Stage for nations to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.

·         Operational rules for international emissions trading among parties to the Protocol and for the CDM and joint implementation;

·         A compliance regime that outlined consequences for failure to meet emissions targets but deferred to the parties to the Protocol, once it came into force, the decision on whether those consequences would be legally binding;

·         Accounting procedures for the flexibility mechanisms;

·         A decision to consider at COP 8 how to achieve a review of the adequacy of commitments that might lead to discussions on future commitments by developing countries.

COP 8

From 23

October to

1 November

2002 in New

Delhi

Agenda mostly of second-order and technical issues

·         Adopted the Delhi Ministerial Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development.

·         Adopted rules of procedure for the executive board of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

·         Completed work on the reporting required of developed countries to assess their compliance under the Kyoto Protocol.

·         Adopted guidance to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for managing two new funds established at COP-7 to assist developing countries.

·         Adopted new guidelines for national communications to be submitted by developing countries reporting on their emissions and steps they are taking to meet their commitments under the Framework Convention.

·         Requested the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Montreal Protocol's Technological and Economic Assessment Panel to conduct a special report on the question of HFCs/PFCs - compounds that have replaced ozone-depleting substances but contribute to climate change.

COP 9

From 1 December to 12 December 2003 in Milan, Italy

·         Agricultural biodiversity

·         Global  Strategy  for  Plant

·         Conservation

·         Invasive Alien Species

·         Forest Diversity

·         Incentive Measures

·         Ecosystem Approach

The parties agreed to use the Adaptation Fund established at COP7 in 2001 primarily in supporting developing countries better adapt to climate change. The fund would also be used for capacity-building through technology transfer. The parties also agreed to review the first national reports submitted by 110 non-Annex I countries.

COP 10

From 9 December 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina

·         Organizational matters.

·         Consideration of reports.

·         Access and benefit sharing.

·         Strategic issues for evaluating progress    and    supporting implementation.

·         Issues for in-depth consideration

·         Other substantive issues arising from decisions of the conference of the parties.

·         Administrative and budgetary matters.

·         Buenos Aires programme of work on adaptation and response measures.

·         Capacity-building for developing countries (non-Annex I Parties).

·         Capacity-building for countries with economies in transition.

·         Work of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group.

·         Implementation of the global observing system for climate.

·         Development and transfer of technologies.

·         Status of, and ways to enhance, implementation of the New Delhi work programme on Article 6 of the Convention.         

COP 11

From 28

November

and 9

December

2005, in

Montreal,

Quebec,

Canada

·         Capacity building.

·         Development and transfer of technologies.

·         The adverse effects of climate change on developing and least developed countries.

·         The several financial and budget-related issues including guidelines   to   the   global environment facility (gef).

Expression of gratitude to the Government of Canada and the people of the city of Montreal.

 

COP 12

From 6

November

to 17

November

2006m

I Nairobi,

Kenya

·         It was designed to mitigate climate   change   and   help countries adapt to the effects.

 

·         Expression of gratitude to the Government of Kenya and the people of the city of Nairobi.

 

COP 13

From 3

December 17

December

2007,at

Nusa Dua,

in Bali,

Indonesia

·         Adaptation Fund.

·         Further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism.

·         Guidance on the implementation of Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol.

·         Scope and content of the second review of the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to its Article 9.

·         Compliance under the Kyoto Protocol.

·         Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol.

·         Agreement on a timeline and structured negotiation on the post-2012 framework (the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol) was achieved with the adoption of the Bali Action Plan.

·         The Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) was established as a new subsidiary body to conduct the negotiations aimed at urgently enhancing the implementation of the Convention up to and beyond 2012.

COP 14

From 1

December to

12 December

2008m

Poznan,

Poland

 

·         Election of the President of the Conference at its fourteenth session.

·         Adoption of the rules of procedure.

·         Adoption of the agenda.

·         Election of officers other than the President.

·         Admission of organizations as observers.

·         Review of implementation of commitments and of other provisions of the Convention.

·         Delegates agreed on principles for the financing of a fund to help the poorest nations cope with the effects of climate change and they approved a mechanism to incorporate forest protection into the efforts of the international community to combat climate change.

·         Expression of gratitude to the Government of the Republic of Poland and the people of the city of Poznan.                                       

COP 15

From 7

December to

18 December

2009 in in

Copenhagen,

Denmark

·         Financial mechanism of the Convention.

·         National communications.

·         Capacity-building under the Convention.

·         Development and transfer of technologies.

·         Reducing   emissions   from deforestation   in developing countries:    approaches    to stimulate action.

·         Other matters referred to the Conference of the Parties by the subsidiary bodies

·         Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention.

·         Copenhagen Accord.

·         Amendment to Annex I to the Convention.

·         Methodological guidance for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries.

·         Work of the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention.

·         Expression of gratitude to the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark and the people of the city of Copenhagen

COP 16

From 28

November to

10 December

2010 in

Cancun,

Mexico

 

·         Financial mechanism of the Convention.

·         National communications.

·         Development and transfer of technologies.

·         Capacity-building under the Convention.

·         Implementation of Article 4, paragraphs 8 and 9, of the Convention.

·         Article 6 of the Convention.

·         Other matters referred to the Conference of the Parties by the subsidiary bodies.

 

·         Parties agreed to: commit to a maximum temperature rise of 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels; make fully operational by 2012 a technology mechanism to boost the development and spread of new climate-friendly technologies; establish a Green Climate Fund to provide financing for action in developing countries via thematic funding windows.

·         They also agreed on a new Cancun Adaptation Framework, which included setting up an Adaptation Committee to promote strong, cohesive action on adaptation.

COP 17

From 28

November to

9 December

2011 in

Durban,

South Africa

 

·         Financial mechanism of the Convention.

·         National communications.

·         Development and transfer of technologies.

·         Equitable access to sustainable development.

·         Unilateral trade measures.

·         Accelerated access to critical mitigation   and   adaptation technologies    and    related

intellectual property rights

Adoption of the report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session.

 

COP 18

From 26

November to

7 December

2012 in

Doha, Qatar

·         Article 17 of the Convention contains procedures for the adoption of protocols to the Convention.

·         In accordance with Article 17, Parties have submitted six proposals.

·         Five proposals were submitted in 2009 and were communicated to Parties and signatories to the Convention by 6 June 2009 and, for information, to the Depositary on 25 June 2009.

·         One proposal was submitted in 2010 and communicated to Parties and signatories to the Convention on 28 May 2010 and, for information, to the Depositary on 17 June 2010.

·         The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol (to be accepted before entering into force) featuring a second commitment period running from 2012 until 2020 limited in scope to 15% of the global carbon dioxide emissions due to the lack of commitments of Japan, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, New Zealand (nor the United States and Canada, who are not parties to the Protocol in that period) and due to the fact that developing countries like China (the world's largest emitter), India and Brazil are not subject to emissions reductions under the Kyoto Protocol.

·         Language on loss and damage, formalized for the first time in the conference documents.

·         Russia, Belarus and Ukraine objected at the end of the session.

COP 19

From

11 to 23

November

2013 in

Warsaw,

Poland

 

·         Further advancing the Durban Platform.

·         Long-term climate finance.

·         Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage associated with climate.

·         Report of the Green Climate Fund to the Conference of the Parties and guidance to the Green Climate Fund.

·         Arrangements   between the Conference of the Parties and the Green Climate Fund.

·         Report   of   the   Global Environment Facility to the Conference of the Parties and guidance to the Global Environment Facility.

 

·         A draft report on the work of the session will be prepared for adoption by the COP at the end of the session.

·         The COP will be invited to adopt the draft report and authorize the Rapporteur to complete the report after the session under the guidance of the President and with the assistance of the secretariat.

·         Expression of gratitude to the Government of the Republic of Poland and the people of the city of Warsaw.

 

COP 20

From 1

December to

12 December

2014 in

Lima, Peru

 

·         Gender and climate change.

·         Other matters referred to the Conference of the Parties by the subsidiary bodies.

·         Capacity-building under the Convention.

·         Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts.

 

·         Lima Call for Climate Action.

·         Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated.

·         Report of the Global Environment Facility to the Conference of the Parties.

·         Further guidance to the Least Developed Countries Fund.

·         Methodologies for the reporting of financial information by Parties included.  

COP 21

From 30

November to

12 December

2015 in

Paris, France

·         Placing emphasis on concepts like   climate   justice   and sustainable lifestyles, the Paris Agreement for the first time brings together all nations for a common cause under the UNFCCC.

·         One of the main focuses of the agreement is to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below \[2{}^\circ C\]above pre- industrial level and on driving efforts to limit it even further to \[1.5{}^\circ C\]

·         The Agreement seeks to enhance the 'implementation of the Convention' while reflecting the principles of equity and CBDR-RC, in the light of different national circumstances. Agreement is not mitigation-centric and includes other important elements such as adaptation, loss and damage, finance, technology development and transfer, capacity building and transparency of action and support.

 

·         Negotiations resulted in the adoption of the Paris Agreement on 12 December, governing climate change reduction measures from 2020.

·         The adoption of this agreement ended the work of the Durban platform, established during COP17.

·         The agreement will enter into force (and thus become fully effective) on November 4, 2016. On October 4, 2016 the threshold for adoption was reached with over 55 countries representing at least 55% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions ratifying the Agreement.

COP 22

From 7 November to 18 November 2016 in Marrakech, in the North- African country of Morocco

·         A focal issue of COP 22 is that of water scarcity, water cleanliness, and water-related sustainability, a major problem in the   developing   world, including many African states.

·         Prior to the event a special initiative on water was preside by Charafat Afailal, Morocco's Minister in Charge of Water and Aziz Mekouar, COP 22 Ambassador for Multilateral Negotiations.

·         Another focal issue was the need to reduce greenhouse emissions and utilize low-carbon energy sources. Mr. Peter Thompson, President of the UN General Assembly, called for the transformation of the global economy in all sectors to achieve a low emissions global economy.

·         Preparations for the entry into force of the Paris Agreement and the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.

·         Paris Committee on Capacity-building.

·         Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and

·         Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts.

·         The Paris Agreement has been adopted and brought into force, but work needs to be done to put flesh onto its basic structure.

·         Report of the Green Climate Fund to the Conference of the Parties and guidance to the Green Climate Fund.

·         Outcome of the first round of the international assessment and review process (2014 - 2015).

 

COP 23

COP 23 is expected to be held from 6 November to 17 November to 2017 in Bonn, Germany

 

.

 

Climate Change Performance Index

 

  • After a significant success in agreeing on a new international climate treaty in 2015 in Paris, the success of the Paris Agreement must now be measured by the implementation of mitigation targets on a national level.
  • As in all past editions of the CCPI, the places 1 to 3 remain unoccupied because even after the Paris Agreement came into force, no country has yet done enough to prevent the dangerous impacts of climate change.
  • The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an instrument designed to enhance transparency in international climate politics.
  • Its aim is to put political and social pressure on those countries which have, up until now, failed to take ambitious action on climate protection and it also aims to highlight those countries with best practice climate policies.
  • On the basis of standardised criteria, the index evaluates and compares the climate protection performance of 58 countries that together are responsible for about 90% of global energy-related \[C{{O}_{2}}\]emissions.
  • There are other countries with a good or even higher climate protection performance, but due to methodological reasons, their inclusion is not possible however, it would be interesting to have a closer look on their climate protection efforts, since some of them are very proactive.
  • In 2013, after seven years of publication, the CCPI has been thoroughly evaluated and this evaluation has had two major outcomes, i.e.
  • From then on, it has been possible to include emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, albeit not with the same quality of data as energy-related emissions.
  • The second achievement was a new structure and weighting of the individual indicators with a much stronger focus on renewable energy and efficiency as the most prominent mitigation strategies.

 

Climate Change Performance Index for G20 Countries

 

Rank

Country

Rank

4

France

66.17

6

United Kingdom

66.10

16

Italy

60.72

20

India

50.08

22

Indonesia

58.86

28

Mexico

57.02

29

Germany

56.86

32

South Africa

56.17

36

Argentina

53.15

40

Brazil

52.46

43

United States

51.04

48

China

47.49

51

Turkey

45.54

53

Russian Federation

44.30

55

Canada

43.06

57

Australia

40.66

58

Korea

38.11

60

Japan

35.93

61

Saudi Arabia

25.45

Note: The European Union is not included (EU is a part of G20 countries)

 

 Climate Change Performance Index for EU Countries

Rank

Country

Score

4

France

66.17

5

Sweden

66.15

6

United Kingdom

66.10

7

Cyprus

64.28

9

Luxemburg

62.86

10

Malta

62.51

11

Portugal

62.47

12

Belgium

62.08

13

Denmark

61.87

15

Latvia

61.20

16

Italy

60.72

17

Croatia

60.66

18

Romania

60.33

19

Lithuania

59.75

21

Ireland

59.02

24

Czech Republic

58.52

25

Greece

58.29

26

Slovak Republic

57.69

27

Netherland

57.10

29

Germany

56.58

30

Slovenia

56.55

31

Finland

56.28

33

Spain

56.14

34

Hungary

55.05

35

Poland

53.68

37

Bulgaria

53.06

41

Austria

52.00

50

Estonia

46.04

 

Climate Change Performance Index for Emerging countries

Rank

Country

Score

8

Morocco

63.28

20

India

59.08

22

Indonesia

58.86

23

Egypt

58.75

28

Mexico

57.02

32

South Africa

56.16

36

Argentina

53.15

40

Brazil

52.46

42

Thailand

51.91

44

Malaysia

50.96

47

Algeria

48.46

48

China

47.49

51

Turkey

45.54

52

Chinese Taipei

44.76

54

Singapore

43.97

56

Iran

43.05

58

Korea

38.11

61

Saudi Arabia

25.45

 

Other Topics

Notes - Climate Change
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