11th Class Business Studies Forms Of Business Organisation Question Bank Forms Of Business Organisation (Higher)

  • question_answer
    Differentiate between a Joint Stock Company and a Cooperative Society.


    Ans.     The main differences between Cooperative Organisation and Company Organisation are given below:
    1. Governing statute: A company is governed by the Companies Act, 1956 while a co-operative organisation is subject to the provisions of the Cooperative Societies Act, 1912 or State Cooperative Societies Acts.
    2. Basic objects: The primary objective of a cooperative society is to provide service, whereas a company seeks to earn profits. This does not mean that a cooperative society does not earn profits or a company does not render service to society.
    It simply means that all the activities of a cooperative society are guided by service motive and profits are incidental to this objective. On the other hand, the activities of a company are inspired by profit taking and services rendered to society are incidental to profit motive.
    3. Number of members: The minimum number of persons is 7 in a public company and 2 in a private company. A cooperative requires at least 10 members. The maximum number of members is 50 in a private company and 100 in cooperative credit society. There is no maximum limit in case of public companies and non-credit cooperative societies.
    4. Member's liability: The liability of members of a company is generally limited to the face value of shares held or the amount of guarantee given by them though the Companies Act permits unlimited liability to companies. The members of a cooperative society can opt for unlimited liability. But in practice their liability is generally limited.
    5. Management and control: The management of a cooperative society is democratic as each member has one vote and there is no system of proxy. In a company, the number of votes depends upon the number of shares and proxies held by a member. There is little separation between ownership and management in a cooperative society due to limited and local membership.
    6. Distribution of surplus: The profits of a company are distributed as dividends in proportion to the capital contributed by the members.
    In a cooperative society a minimum part of surplus must be set aside as a reserve and for the general welfare of the public. The rest is distributed in accordance with the patronage provided by different members after paying dividend up to 10 per cent on capital.
    7. Share capital: In a company, one member can buy any number of shares but an individual cannot buy more than 10 per cent of the total number of shares or shares worth ` 1,000 of a cooperative society.
    A public company must offer new shares to the existing members while a cooperative society issues new shares generally to increase its membership. The subscription list of a cooperative society is kept open for new members whereas, the subscription list of a company is closed after subscriptions. A company is thus capitalistic in nature while a cooperative society is socialistic.
    8. Transferability of interest: The shares of a public limited company are freely transferable while the shares of cooperative society cannot be transferred but can be returned to the society in case a member wants to withdraw his membership. A member of a cooperative society can withdraw his capital by giving a notice to the society. A shareholder, on the other hand, cannot demand back his capital from the company until it's winding up.

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