B) herbaceous plants
C) Bryophytes and fungi
Correct Answer: B
Solution :[b] Moss and lichens also are highly flammable and play a role in the intensity and spread of forest fire and can shape the makeup of a forest as it recovers. Some species of lichen and moss, such as reindeer lichen and mountain fem moss, lose moisture quickly when humidity levels change and they tend to provide fuel for forest fires, allowing them to spread more rapidly. Mats of moss create flammable pathways along which fires spread. Most fires kill these lichens and mosses as well as the top growth of herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees, depending on the strength of the fire and how long it bums. With mats of moss and lichens gone in the immediate aftermath of a fire, grasses, herbaceous plants and small shrubs move in to fill area left by moss and lichen, particular if the forest canopy was damaged. Since lichens and mosses do not have underground root systems, fire will kill most species. The lichen and moss regrow by sending windblown fragments to the prior bum areas. The lichen regrow slowly and usually not until other plants have grown up enough to provide shade, but they can re-establish themselves as long as there's not another fire or heavy grazing. Moss and lichen recovery can take decades, so destroying these organisms can have long-term negative implications for the structural stability of soil:
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