SSC History Sample Paper NCERT Sample Paper-4

  • question_answer
    Who among the following established the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company?

    A)  A. D. Shroff         

    B)  Harisarvottam Rao

    C)  V.O. Chidambaram Pillai

    D)  Walchand Hirachand

    Correct Answer: C

    Solution :

    [c] V.O. Chidambaram, one of the greatest freedom fighters of our country, formed the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company (SSNC) and launched the voyage of swadeshi ships during the last century against the mighty British Navigation Company. VOC, affectionately called as 'Vandematram Pillai' or 'Swadeshi Pillai' and popularly known as 'Kappalotiya Tamizhan,' was born on September 5, 1872, at Ottapidaram. He, under the leadership of Balagangadhar Tilak, and in the company of Subramania Siva and Subramania Bharati, campaigned for the freedom movement in Tamil Nadu in the early years of the last century. With dynamism, courage and integrity VOC raised the people against the mighty Bristish Raj. He also organised the workers of Coral Mills at Tuticorin to fight for their rights and resist exploitation. Tirunelveli and' Tuticorin were the hot beds of political activities during the freedom movement. VOC and Siva arranged processions and meetings to celebrate the release of Bapin Chandra Pal from prison. As the British were irritated and angered by the swadeshi activities of VOC and Siva, both were arrested. On March 7, 1908, VOC and Subramania Siva were found guilty of 'sedition' charges. Siva was sentenced to ten years transportation. But VOC received the maximum sentence of transportation for life and second sentence of transportation was also passed on substantive 'sedition' offences and to run concurrently with the first. But later, it was reduced to six years imprisonment. VOC suffered brutal and inhuman treatment in prison, as he was forced to operate jute cleaning machine with bare hands. He was substituted for an ox on the oil pressing machine under the hot sun. During the freedom movement, VOC initiated swadeshi education and established swadeshi stores for the sale of Indian-made goods. During this time, the merchants of Tuticorin engaged passenger shipping and cargo service only with British Indian Steam Navigation Company (BISNC) and other European steam navigation companies. BISNC treated Indian merchants in an unfair and offensive manner and acted in favour of British traders. The problems of Indian traders and facilities at Toticorin port were raised by K.R. Gurusamy lyer in the then Madras Legislative Council. The problems of Tuticorin merchants were not properly addressed. So they were forced to make necessary shipping arrangements to safeguard their trade and commerce. As the result, Nalla Perumal Pillai, one of the traders of Tuticorin, launched Seena Vana Shipping Company and arranged ships on rental basis with a Bombay-based company. Due to stiff opposition from and hurdles placed by BISNC, Seena Vana Shipping Company ceased to exist. Realising the problems faced by the Indian merchants and traders, VOC formed the SSNC on October 16, 1906. The company was floated with a capital of Rs. 10 lakh, divided into 40,000 shares of Rs. 25 each. Shares were open only to Indians, Ceylonese and other Asian nationals. By December 1906, fifteen directors had been elected with Pandithurai Thevar, ex- Zamindar of Palavanatham and founder of fourth Tamil Sangam, as president and VOC as assistant secretary.

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