|What were the reasons of failure of land reform in India:|
|1. Lack of political will power.|
|2. Problem at implemental level.|
|3. Poor land records|
|Choose the correct one:|
A) Only 1
B) Only 2
C) Only 1 and 2
D) All 1, 2 and. 3
Correct Answer: D
Solution :[d] There are a number of causes for the failure of the programmes of land reforms. 1. Much publicity has been given in advance by the leaders of the ruling party to the proposed land reforms after independence. Again, the time taken for a bill to become an Act in many states has been unusually long. This has enabled the landowners to make necessary adjustments so as to be able to evade various provisions of land reform legislation. 2. The term "Personal cultivation' is quite loose. One could resume land for personal cultivation under the definition even while sitting at a distance of 200 miles. The Zamindars have been permitted to possess substantial areas of land for cultivation. Again, the laws have provided for many exemptions in the form of land awarded for gallantry, land under orchards, tea estates, well-run farms etc. Most of the laws granting ownership rights to tenants are not mandatory. They are rather optimal. The tenants have to move the government for grant of ownership rights. They will not get them automatically. On many occasions, tenants hesitate to approach the law courts for this purpose merely out of fear of the landlords. 3. To escape the laws relating to land ceilings, the Zamindars have indulged in large scale transfer of land to their family members or kinsmen. 4. The capacity of the tenants to fight for their right also counts a lot in the context of land reforms. 5. The state governments which control the land operations have moved favourably towards the big farmers. The interests of the small farmers have been vitally affected. 6. The programme of land reforms necessitates adequate political desire, zeal and support. But unfortunately the political leaders only wear a mask of progressive socialistic outlook. 7. Whenever some honest officials implement the laws relating to land reforms sincerely, they incur the wrath of the political leaders who ultimately put them in unnecessary difficulties. 8. The holders of surplus land manipulate the land data in such a way that the land in excess in their possession is usually barren and uncultivable. 9. Absence of records regarding ownership and possession of land and about its actual cultivators stands in the way of properly identifying the beneficiaries of land reforms. 10. Land reforms laws are not uniform throughout India. They are different in different states. This also accounts for the slow progress of land reforms measures. 11. The new seed-cum-fertilizer technology, for its successful adoption, needs ample resources and dynamic entrepreneurship. Only large farmers can fulfill these conditions. Hence on this count many economists have come out in favour of the abolition of ceiling on land holdings.
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