UPSC General Studies Solved Paper - General Studies-2016

  • question_answer
    In the context of the developments in Bioinformatics, the term ?transcriptome?, sometimes seen in the news, refers to

    A)  a range of enzymes used in genome editing.

    B)  the full range of mRNA molecules expressed by an organism.

    C)  the description of the mechanism of gene expression.

    D)  a mechanism of genetic mutations taking place in cells.

    Correct Answer: B

    Solution :

    Exp. [b] The human genome is made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), along, winding molecule that contains the instructions needed to build and maintain cells. These instructions are spelled out in the form of 'base pairs of four different chemicals, organised into 20,000 to 25,000 genes.  For instructions to be carried out, DNA must be 'read' and transcribed in other words, copied - into RNA (ribonucleic acid). These gene readouts are called transcripts, and a transcriptome is a collection of all the gene readouts present in a cell. A transcriptome is the full range of messenger RNA, or mRNA, molecules expressed by an organism. The term 'transcriptome' can also be used to describe the array of mRNA transcripts produced in a particular cell or tissue type. In contrast with the genome, which is characterised by its stability, transcriptome actively changes. In fact, an organism's transcriptome varies depending on many factors, including stage of development and environmental conditions.

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