12th Class History Solved Paper - History 2012 Outside Delhi Set-I

  • question_answer
    Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end of it:
    Travelling with the Mughal army
    Bernier often travelled with the army. This is an excerpt from his description of the army's march to Kashmir:
    I am expected to keep two good Turkoman horses, and I also take with me a powerful Persian camel and driver, a groom for my horses, a cook and a servant to go before my horse with a flask of water in his hand, according to the custom of the country. I am also provided with every useful article, such as a tent of moderate size, a carpet, a portable bed made of four very strong but light canes, a pillow, a mattress, round leather table-cloths used at meals, some few napkins of dyed cloth, three small bags with culinary utensils which are all placed in a large bag, and this bag is again carried in a very capacious and strong double sack or net made of leather thongs. This double sack likewise contains the provisions, linen and wearing apparel, both or master and servants. I have taken care, to lay in a stock of excellent rice for five or six days? consumption, of sweet biscuits flavoured with anise (a herb), of limes and sugar- Nor have I forgottoen a linen bag with its small iron hook for the purpose of suspending and draining da hi or curds; nothing being considered so refreshing in this country as lemonade and dahi.
    (i) Who was Beriener? Give his brief introduction.
    (ii) What was the purpose of his travel and what was expected of him while going on travel? Describe briefly.
    (iii) What things would you like to take with you while going on travel and why? Explain.
    Declining a Royal Gift
    This excerpt from a sun text describe the proceedings at Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya's hospice in 1313:
    I (the author, Amir Hasan Sijzi) had the good fortune of kissing his (Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya's) feet. At this time a local ruler had sent him the deed of ownership to two gardens and much land, along with the provisions and tools for their maintenance. The ruler had also made it clear that he was relinquishing all his rights to both the gardens and land. The master ... had not accepted that gift. Instead, he had lamented:
    "What have I to do with gardens and fields and lands? ....
    None of.... our spiritual masters had engaged in such activity? Then he told an appropriate story, "... Sultan Ghiyasuddin, who at that time was still known as Ulugh Khan, came to visit Shaikh Fariduddin (and) offered some money and ownership deeds for four villages to the Shaikh, the money being for the benefit of the dervishes (sufis), and the land for his use. Smiling, Shaikh al Islam (Fariduddin) said: ?Give me the money. I will dispense it to the dervishes. But as for those land deeds, keep them. There are many who long for them. Give them away to such persons.?
    (i) What did the local ruler send to Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya and why? Explain.
    (ii) What did Ulugh Khan offer to Shaikh Fariduddin when he visited him?
    (iii) Why did Nizamuddin Auliya refuse to accept the offer of Amir Hassan Sijzi and what did he say to him?


    Travelling with the Mughal army
    (1) Francois Bernier was French and was a doctor. He was also a political philosopher and historian.
                He came to the Mughal Empire in search of opportunities in mid seventeenth century. He was closely associated with the Mughal court, as a physician to Prince Dara Shukoh and later as an intellectual and scientist, with Danishmand Khan, an Armenian noble at the Mughal court.
    (2) He used to travel because firstly he worked under Mughal court in capacity of physician to Prince Dara Shikoh and hence was to travel with the army.
                Secondly, Bernier travelled to several parts of the country, and wrote account of what he saw, frequently comparing what he saw in India with the situation in Europe.
                Example: He gave detailed account of Indian society, its economic, social and political life, Mughal court etc.
    (3) While going on travel I would like to take some different items that what were used by Bernier because of change in technology and social life. But some basic things would remain same, though they might be modified version of what was taken by him.
                If I am going on a travel which requires me making food etc. then I would take a foldable tent with me along with some-utensils. Though I would take use and throw plates rather than leather plates to eat in. Some packed items such as biscuits etc would be helpful in a five-six days travel.
                I would also like to take bedding and some clothes, water bottle, a pan to cook steam rice and some rice along with pickle so that I don?t need to cook vegetables or dal etc. Plus I would take torch with me which would be helpful in dark areas. I would also take some identity cards and money along with me.
    Declining a Royal Gift
    (1) The local ruler sent an offer whereby he wanted to donate two gardens and some land to Nizzamuddin Aulia. He also offered their maintenance also.
                The local ruler sent these gifts because it was believed that the auliya could intercede with God in order to improve the material and spiritual conditions of ordinary human beings and thus were popular among the masses. Thus rulers wanted to show their allegiance with Sufis and also wanted to gain legitimacy from them.
    (2) Ulugh Khan offered money and land to Shaikh Fariduddin. He said money can be distributed among sufis while the land was for the use of Shaikh Fariduddin.
    (3) A major feature of the sufi tradition was austerity, including maintaining a distance from worldly power. They accepted donations in cash and kind and rather than accumulate donations, they preferred to use these fully on immediate requirements such as food, clothes, living quarters and ritual necessities etc. But Amir Hasan Sijzi was offering him gardens and land which could not be used for above mentioned purposes.
                Aulia told him that land and gardens are of no use to Sufis and none of their spiritual masters had accepted such. He told him a story of Ulugh khan and Shaikh Fariduddin whereby Shaikh accepted the money but refused to take land.

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