12th Class Political Science Solved Paper - Political Science-2018 Outside Delhi

  • question_answer
    Examine the six reforms proposed as criteria for new permanent and non-permanent members of the U.N. Security Council.
    Or
    Analyse any three broad components of the security strategy of India.

    Answer:

    On the reforms of structures and processes, the biggest discussion has been on the functioning of Security Council. The following are just some of the criteria that have been proposed for new permanent and non - permanent members of the Security Council. A new member, it has been suggested should be:
    (1) A major economic power.
    (2) A major military power.
    (3) A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
    (4) A big nation in terms of its population.
    (5) A nation that respects democracy and Human Rights.
    (6) A country that would make the council more representative of the world?s diversity in terms of geography, economic system and culture.
                We are of opinion that security council should reform and improve its working" to make the UN more effective i.e., inclusion, or member states should be judged on the basis of their contribution to peace keeping initiatives permanent members should be from industrialized developed countries and should have special Veto Powers. This position remains the same and no one is allowed to enter in this elite list. Such developed big countries usually neglect the need of smaller nations and such situation must be changed and balanced by enhancing representation from developing countries to become either permanent or non-permanent members s of security council.
    Or
    India has faced traditional (military} and non-traditional threats to its security that have emerged from within as well as outside its borders its5 security strategy has tour broad components, which have been used in a varying combination from time to time. We will analyse these here components.
    (1) The first component was strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours - Pakistan in 1947- 48, 1965, 1971 and 1999; and China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear armed countries in South Asian region, India's decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified in terms of safeguarding her national security, India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.
    (2) The second component of India's security strategy has been to strengthen internatioal norms and international institutions to protect its security interest. India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, supported the cause of Asian. Solidarity, decolonisation, disarmament and the UN as the forum in which international conflicts could be settled. India also took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory non -proliferation regime in which all countries would have the same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological, chemical). It argued for an equitable New International Economic Order (NIEO). This strategy from India's point was also justified.
    (3) The third component of Indian security strategy is centered towards meeting security challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as the Nagaland, Mizoram, the Punjab, and Kashmir among others have, from time to time, sought to break away from India. India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system, which allows different communities and groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power. This strategy was absolutely correct.


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