12th Class Political Science Solved Paper - Political Science-2018 Outside Delhi

  • question_answer
    Describe any three major reasons that led to the declaration of Emergency in 1975.
    Describe any four steps taken by Indira Gandhi to implement the 'Garibi Hatao' programme.


    The emergency was proclaimed in response to a petition filed by Raj Narain, a socialist leader and a candidate, who had contested against Indira Gandhi in 1971, the following were the reasons given by the government for declaring a National Emergency in 1975.
    (1) The government declared that there was a threat of internal disturbances and therefore, it invoked the article 352 of the constitution.
    (2) The government decided that a grave crisis had arisen which made the proclamation of a state of emergency necessary.
    (3) Technically speaking, this was within the powers of government, as our constitution provides some special powers to the government once an emergency is declared.
    The President Fakhruddin Alt Ahmad thus proclaimed emergency, which became the most controversial episode in India?s politics.
    In 1971, Indira Gandhi gave a popular slogan ?Garibi Hatao?. To implement the programme under this slogan, she took following decisions:
    (1) Indira Gandhi focused on the growth of the public sector.
    (2) Imposition of ceiling on rural land holding and urban property.
    (3) Removal of disparities in income and opportunity.
    (4) Government nationalised total 20 banks which controlled 70 per cent of India's deposit and controlled distribution of money.
    (5) Indira Gandhi discontinued the princely privileges i.e., Privy Purse.
    Through Garibi Hatao programme Indira Gandhi tried to generate a support base among the dis advantaged, especially among the landless labourers, Dalits and Adivasis, minorities, woman and unemployed youth. In the long run, this programme helped the people below poverty line.


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