Important Terms And Concepts - Power Sharing
Category : 10th Class
IMPORTANT TERMS AND CONCEPTS
- Power Sharing: Tower sharing' is the distribution of powers/subjects among the organs of the government like—legislature, executive and judiciary. It is an intelligent step to ensure the stability of political order. Besides, power sharing also includes sharing at the different levels like union, state and local.
- Ethnic: "A social division" based on shared culture. Mostly people belonging to the same ethnic group believe in their common descent because they have similarities of physical type or culture or both. They may not have the same religion or nationality, e.g., French speaking, Dutch speaking, Sinhala speaking, Oriyas, Tamilians, etc.
- Sri Lankan Tamils: Tamil natives of Sri Lanka are called "Sri Lankan Tamils". They constitute 13 per cent of the population.
- Indian Tamils: The Tamilians whose forefathers came from India as plantation workers during colonial period and settled there (Sri Lanka) are called "Indian Tamils". They constitute 5 per cent of the population.
- Majoritarian: A concept which signifies a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants is known as "Majoritarian". In this type of rule they disregard the wishes and needs of the minority.
- Community Government: A type of Government which is elected by people belonging to one language community is called "Community Government", e.g., Dutch, French and German speaking no matter where they live. This is a very specific type of Government in Belgium.
- Civil War: A violent conflict between opposing groups within a country is known as civil war. Sometimes it becomes so intense that it appears like a war.
- Prudential: It is a set of reason which favours power sharing. It is based on prudence, or on careful calculation of gains and losses. Prudential reasons stress beneficial consequences.
- Moral: It is also a set of reasons which emphasise the intrinsic worth of power sharing. It is based on moral considerations.
- Horizontal Distribution of Power: A type of distribution in which power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. They are placed at the same level.
- Checks and Balances: A system in which each organ of the government checks the others which results in a balance of power among various institutions. It ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power.
- Vertical Division of Power: It is a type of distribution of power which involves the higher and lower levels of government such as central, provincial or regional levels.
- Federal Government: Federal Government is a type of Government in which powers are shared among the different levels. Like union level and provincial level. In this the general government for the entire country at the union level is called "Federal Government".
- Reserved Constituencies: It is a system in which constituencies are reserved in the Assemblies and the Parliament for minorities in order to give them a fair share in power.
- Coalition Government: When the alliance of two or more parties gets elected and forms a government it is known as the "Coalition Government". This is another form of power sharing.