Category : 4th Class

*     Nutrients


All living thing needs food for its growth, maintenance and development. Food has different components. These components are called nutrients. Each nutrient is required in specific amount and has a specific function. Food is divided into different groups according to the function they perform in the body.


*           Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates provide energy to our body. We need energy to do any kind of work. Example bread, chocolates, sweet Potatoes and Banana.


               Carbohydrate Rich Food  


*           Proteins

They are the body building nutrients. We need protein for our growth. They build muscles and repair the damaged parts of our body. Children need more protein than adult because their body parts need to grow and get bigger. Milk, egg, fish, meat, cheese curd, pulses and beans etc. are protein rich food.

              Protein Rich Food  


*           Fat

Fat gives energy and warmth. They give us more energy and heat than carbohydrates. Fat are stored in the body for future use. This stored energy is used when the body does not get enough food to eat. Example: Cheese, butter, oil, nuts are all rich in fat.

            Fat Rich Food  


*         Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and minerals are the protective nutrients. These food nutrients protect us from diseases and keep us healthy and fit. These are needed in very small amounts. Example fresh fruits, vegetables, eggs, milk are rich source of vitamins and minerals.

Food items rich in vitamins and Minerals  


*         Roughage and water

Apart from nutrients, our body also needs dietary fibers, which help us to keep our bowl clean by adding bulk to it. These dietary fibers also know as roughage. Roughage is mainly provided by plant products in our food. Fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grain pulses are main source of roughage. It does not provide any nutrient value to the body but still is very important. It help us to get rid of undigested food with ease. Water helps in absorption of nutrients from the food. It also plays a major role in throwing out wastes like sweat, urine from the body. Most of the water requirement is fulfilled by the liquids we drink. Fruits and vegetables also provide water.

                Roughage and Water      





    Which one of the following food is a rich source of carbohydrates?

(a) Bread

(b) Egg

(c) Milk

(d) All of these

(e) None of these


Answer: (a)



     Roughage has no food value yet it is a important part of a balanced diet. Why?

(a) Roughage has water holding capacity              

(b) Roughage add bulk to the food

(c) Roughage make the food tasty

(d) Both a and b

(e) All of the above


Answer: (d)



*       Sense Organs


Sense organs are the organs, which help us to sense the outside world. They are the external organs of our body. We have five sense organs.


*         Eyes

Eyes are the organ, which help us to see the beautiful world around us. The eye is connected to the brain. The brain combines the input of both the eyes into a single image.


        Human Eye  


*         Ear

Ear is the organ, which helps us to listen to all kinds of sound, whether it is music, chirping of birds, moving of waves or laughter of children. The ear is connected to the brain. The brain combines the input of both the ears and then determines the distance and the direction of sound.

  Human Ear  


*       Nose

Nose apart from breathing helps us to smell things. It helps us to smell the fragrance of perfume and the smell of the rotten eggs, decay garbage.

Human Nose  


*         Tongue

Tongue is the organ of taste, it also helps us to talk. The taste of the things that we eat is due to tongue. Tongue is sensitive to different types of taste like salty, sour, bitter or sweets. The specific area of the tongue is specialized in a specific taste.

  Human Tongue  


*         Skin

Skin help us to feel the things around us. When we touch something we get a lot of information, such as whether it is hard or soft, hot or cold, sharp or blunt rough or smooth etc. Skin covers us from head to the tip of the toe.

     Human Skin  





    How many types of sense organ are present in our body?

(a) Five

(b) Two

(c) Six

(d) Ten

(e) None of these


Answer: (a)



      The biggest sense organ of our body is

(a) Eye

(b) Nose

(c) Skin

(d) Ear

(e) None of these


Answer: (c)

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