Rules for Using Symbols

**Category : **5th Class

**Rule 1:** When a symbol is repeated, its value is multiplied as many times as the symbol repeated.

II = 1 x 2 = 2,

III = 1 x 3 = 3,

XX = 10 x 2 = 20,

XXX = 10 x 3 = 30.

**Note:** A symbol cannot be repeated more than 3 times.

**50 cannot be written as XXXXX.**

**Rule 2:** The symbols whose value are power of 10 can be repeated. In other word the symbols, I, X, C, M can be repeated.

**XXX = 30 , MM = 2000**

**Rule 3:** The symbols whose value are either 5 or product of 5 and a power of 10 cannot be repeated. In other words V, L, and D cannot be repeated.

**It is wrong to write LL for 100.**

**Rule 4:** If a symbol of smaller value is right to the symbol of greater value, their values are added.

**VI = 5 + 1 = 6, XV = 15, LX = 50 + 10 = 60.**

**Rule 5:** If a symbol of smaller value is left to the symbol of greater value, their difference is the resulting value.

**IV = 5 - 1 = 4, IX = 10 - 1 = 9.**

**Rule 6:** The symbols whose value are either 5 or product of 5 and a power of 10 never subtracted. In other word V, L, and D are never written left to the symbol of greater value.

**V cannot be written immediately left to X, L, C, D, and M; L can be written immediately left to the C, D, and M; D cannot be written left to the M.**

**Rule 7:** If a symbol of smaller value comes between two symbols of larger value, its value is subtracted from the value of the symbol which is right to it.

**XIX = 10+(10 - 1) = 19, L1V = 50 + (5 - 1)**.

**Rule 8:** A symbol of smaller value cannot be repeated two or more than two times left to a symbol of larger value.

**30 cannot be written as XXL, similarly 8 cannot be written as IIX.**

**Rule 9:** When a bar (horizontal line) is placed over a Roman symbol, the value of the symbol is increased by 1000 times.

\[\overline{\mathbf{I}}=\mathbf{1000},\text{ }\overline{\mathbf{v}}=\mathbf{5000}.\]

**Look at the following table:**

I | 1 | XXI | 21 | XLI | 41 | LXI | 61 | LXXXI | 81 | ||||

II | 2 | XXII | 22 | XLII | 42 | LXII | 62 | LXXXII | 82 | ||||

III | 3 | XXIII | 23 | XLIII | 43 | LXIII | 63 | LXXXIII | 83 | ||||

IV | 4 | XXIV | 24 | XLIV | 44 | LXIV | 64 | LXXXIV | 84 | ||||

V | 5 | XXV | 25 | XLV | 45 | LXV | 65 | LXXXV | 85 | ||||

VI | 6 | XXVI | 26 | XLVI | 46 | LXVI | 66 | LXXXVI | 86 | ||||

VII | 7 | XXVII | 27 | XLVII | 47 | LXVII | 67 | LXXXVII | 87 | ||||

VIII | 8 | XXVII | 28 | XLVIII | 48 | LXVIII | 68 | LXXXVIII | 88 | ||||

IX | 9 | XXIX | 29 | XLVIII | 49 | LXIX | 69 | LXXXIX | 89 | ||||

X | 10 | XXX | 30 | XLIX | 50 | LXX | 70 | XC | 90 | ||||

XI | 11 | XXXI | 31 | LI | 51 | LXXI | 71 | XCI | 91 | ||||

XII | 12 | XXXII | 32 | LII | 52 | LXXII | 72 | XCII | 92 | ||||

XIII | 13 | XXXIII | 33 | LIII | 53 | LXXIII | 73 | XCIII | 93 | ||||

XIV | 14 | XXXIV | 34 | LIV | 54 | LXXIV | 74 | XCIV | 94 | ||||

XV | 15 | XXXV | 35 | LV | 55 | LXXV | 75 | XCV | 95 | ||||

XVI | 16 | XXXVI | 36 | LVI | 56 | LXXVI | 76 | XCVI | 96 | ||||

XVII | 17 | XXXVII | 37 | LVII | 57 | LXXVII | 77 | XCVII | 97 | ||||

XVIII | 18 | XXXVIII | 38 | LVIII | 58 | LXXVIII | 78 | XCVIII | 98 | ||||

XIX | 19 | XXXIX | 39 | LIX | 59 | LXXIX | 79 | XCIX | 99 | ||||

XX | 20 | XL | 40 | LX | 60 | LXXX | 80 | C | 100 | ||||

D | 500 | ||||||||||||

M | 1000 |

**Write the Roman numeral for 317.**

**Explanation**

317 = 300 + 10 +7

And 300 = CCC, 10 = X, 7 = VII

Thus 317 = CCCXVII.

**Write the Roman numeral for 548.**

**Explanation**

548 = 500 + 40 + 8 .

And 500 = D, 40 = XL(XXXX can not be written for 40), 8 = Vlll.

**Find the value of \[\overline{\text{XIV}}.\] **

**Explanation**

XIV =24, XIV = 24000.

**Arrange the following in ascending order: **

**LXIX, XXIX, XLVII, CLIV, XCIX **

Explanation

LXIX = 69, XXIX =29, XLVII = 47, CLIV = 154, XCIX = 99

Thus XXIX, XLVII, LXIX, XCIX, CLIV

- MDCLXVI is the smallest Roman numeral in which each of the symbols occurs.
- MDCLXVI is the largest Roman numeral in which each of symbols occurs.

- I, X, L, C, D, and M are seven symbols which are used to write any Roman numeral.
- No symbols can be repeated more than 3 times.
- Symbols like I, X, C and M can be repeated.
- Symbols like V, L and D cannot be repeated.
- If a symbol of smaller value is right to the symbol of greater value, their values are added.
- If a symbol of smaller value is left to the symbol of greater value, their difference is the resulting value.

**Which one of the following Roman numerals is correct for 745?**

(a) CCCMLXV

(b) DCCLXV

(c) DCCXLV

(d) DMXLV

(e) None of these

**Answer: (c)**

**Amelia made a mistake while writing Roman numeral for 445. She wrote CDXIV. How will you correct themistake**

(a) C should be replaced by L

(b) I should be replaced by L

(c) I should be replaced by M

(d) X should be replaced by C

(e) None of these

**Answer: (b)**

**For which one of the following numbers, each Roman symbol used exactly once?**

(a) 1666

(b) 1999

(c) 1990

(d) 1000

(e) None of these

**Answer: (a)**

**XL represents a number. If place of the symbols is interchanged, the number will increased by:**

(a) 1

(b) 5

(c) 10

(d) 20

(e) None of these

**Answer: (d)**

**Smallest 3 digit number is subtracted from smallest 4 digit number. Write the result in Roman numeral.**

(a) DM

(b) CM

(c) DCM

(d) MC

(e) None of these

**Answer: (b)**

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