5th Class Science Our Safety Safety and first Aid

Safety and first Aid

Category : 5th Class

Safety and first Aid


Tit bits

Fixed – time traffic lights were invented in the United States and introduced in New York 1918.the purpose of the traffic light is to control the flow of traffic, determine the right way at intersections and give greater safety to drives.



  • First Aid is the first medical help given to an injured person before a doctor arrives. The most important thing while giving first aid is to stay calm.

Safety on the road is more important than ever before because of the rapid increase in the number of vehicles. Read and follow road signs. They are meant for your safety. Always follow safety rules on the road and at home.


  • For cuts and scratches Germs can enter a body through uncovered cuts or wounds and cause infection.
  • Wash away all dirt around the wound.
    • Clean the affected area with cotton wool soaked in an antiseptic lotion.
    • Place a thick pad of cotton wool or sterilize gauze on the wound and press it with your thumb and fingers. This will stop bleeding in most cases.
    • A tourniquet can be used. This is a bandage tightly tied over the wound to stop bleeding.`


  • Wrap a sterile gauze bandage around the wounded area.


  • When the skin is cut by a dirty or rusted object, germs may enter and cause a dangerous disease called tetanus. Consult a doctor for an anti-tetanus injection.
  • For nose bleeds keep the patient upright in a comfortable position with his head held back.


  • Press the bleeding side of the nose firmly.
  • Keep an ice-pack or wet cloth on the nose and the head of the patient.
  • Ask the patient to breathe through his mouth and not to blow his nose.
  • A little bit of bleeding from the nose is harmless but if the bleeding is heavy, send for the doctor.


  • For sprains the tissues around a joint get torn we call it a sprain. Sprains cause swelling and sometimes discoloration of the skin. They are very painful.



  • Keep on applying ice-packs or ice-cubes on the injured joint till the swelling subsides.
  • For fractures A crack or a break in a bone is called a fracture Keep the patient calm and comfortable and send for the doctor.

Apply a splint to give support to the broken bone and try to avoid unnecessary movement,


  • A sling made from a triangular piece of cloth can be used for support.


  • For burns one can suffer burns from hot objects, fire, steam, boiling water, crackers, electric points and chemicals like acids.


  • Minor burns though minor burns are very painful, they can be treated at home. Let running cold water flow over on the burn until the pain subsides. Apply an antiseptic lotion or cream to prevent infection. If an antiseptic lotion is not available apply a paste of baking soda and water.


  • For severe burns cover the burn with a clean piece of cloth or sterile gauze to protect it from germs and dust.


  • If the victim is in a state of shock, give him a warm drink. Never try to give a liquid to an unconscious person. Dip a sterile piece of cloth in a solution of baking soda and use it as a wet compress. Severe burns must be treated by a doctor.


  • If a fire has been caused by defective wiring or an electric gadget. Do not throw water on it. This can cause electrocution. Immediately turn off the main switch.

Smother the fire by throwing sand.

Use a fire extinguisher.


  • For animal bites wash the wound with soap and water to remove germs, as the virus which causes rabies or hydrophobia may be carried in the saliva of an infected animal. Dogs, wolves, bats and cats are known to carry the rabies virus. Apply an antiseptic lotion to prevent infection. Bandage the wound with a sterile gauze. Rush the victim to a doctor.


  • For snake bites poisonous snake injects poison with its sharp fangs, causing a lot of pain and swelling. Treatment must be given immediately as the poison can kill. Apply a tourniquet just above the bite to stop the flow of blood to the heart. This may help to slow down the spread of the poison. Immediately rush the victim to a doctor. It is always better to take precautions when you walk through areas where snakes are found. Wear high boots to protect your feet.


  • For poisoning keep all medicines locked, away from the reach of little children. Read the label very carefully before taking any medicine. Destroy all medicines which have crossed their expiry dates. Properly wash vegetables, and fruits before eating them. They may have been sprayed with harmful insecticides and pesticides. In case of any kind of poisoning, try to make the victim vomit. Rush the victim to a doctor. Keep the telephone numbers of your nearest police station, fire station, doctor and chemist handy. In case of an emergency you can immediately call for help. Being alert and prepared will help you avoid accidents and handle emergencies.




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Notes - Safety and First Aid

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