Grammar (All Topics)
Category : 7th Class
Grammar (All Topics)
· Articles and Determiners
Defining a Noun: A noun is the name of a person, animal, place or thing.
Nouns are of five kinds:
· Proper Nouns: India, Kanpur, Ganga, Kapil
· Common Nouns: country, city, river, person
· Collective Nouns: class, army crew, flat
· Material Nouns: iron, gold, water, rain
· Abstract Nouns: kindness, pride, beauty, pain
Nouns can be classified into two more categories:
(a) Countable nouns
(b) Uncountable nouns
(a) Countable nouns: The nouns that can be counted with a number are called countable nouns. They have singular or plural form. For example: building, cat, dog, etc.
(b) Uncountable nouns: The nouns that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns are qualified by a word that signifies amount. For example: smoke, pain, oil, etc.
USES OF NOUNS
Soap is an uncountable noun, but we can have cakes of soap. Paper is an uncountable noun, but we can have sheets of paper.
Wheat, rice and money are uncountables but grains and rupees are countables.
Some words can be used both as countable and uncountable nouns:
1. Some houses are made of stone (Stone is an uncountable noun.)
2. The child threw a stone at me. (Stone is a countable noun.)
For example: ?We can think or? clogs, trees, mountains, classes-, armies, but we can?t think of kindnesses, prides, etc.
1. This jug is made of glass. (Glass is an uncountable noun)
2 I have taken three glasses of milk. (Glass is a countable noun)
Countable noun may be used with such words as a, one, two, few (a few), many, en.
For example: ?? a pen, one student, two girls a few apples, many children
Uncountable noun cannot be used with these words. We can?t say?
a milk, one wheat, a few kindness
We can use words like little (a little), much.
For example: - a little milk, much help
A pronoun is a word used m place of a noun.
For example: Anna is a brilliant girl. She is the favourite of all the teachers. All of them admire her.
In the example given above, the words ?she? and ?her? are used for the noun Anna?. The word ?them? stands for teachers. So she, her and them are pronouns. Pronouns can be of eight kinds:
1. Personal pronouns: Pronouns that stand for person or thing
(a) Sharon helps her mother in household work. She also does her lessons.
(b) Johnson is a kind boy. He lent his bicycle to Martin.
2. Demonstrative pronouns: Pronouns used to point out the object or objects to which they refer
(a) This is a large house.
(b) Those are beautiful flowers.
3. Interrogative pronouns: Pronouns used to ask questions
(a) What do you need?
(b) Who brought these flowers?
4. Reflexive pronouns: Pronouns like myself, yourself, when used as the receiver of an action.
(a) I hurt myself.
(b) They blamed themselves.
5. Emphasising pronouns: Pronouns used to convey emphasis
(a) She herself called me.
(b) You yourself chose those shoes.
6. Possessive pronouns: Pronouns that show possession
(a) These gloves are mine.
(b) That suit is yours.
7. Indefinite pronouns: Pronouns that stand for some nouns which are understood or implied
(a) All were satisfied.
(b) Many were invited but few came.
8. Relative pronouns: Pronouns that relate a noun to a group of words that follow
(a) We admire the man who does his duty sincerely.
(b) The medicine which the doctor had suggested proved effective.
USES OF PRONOUNS
Personal pronouns: There are three persons- first person, second person and third person.
The first person is the person speaking; the second person is the person spoken to and the third person is the person spoken about.
1. ?I, we, he, she and they? are used as subjects. ?Me, us, him, her and them are used as objects.
They congratulated me. (they-subject, me-object)
He helped us. (he - subject, us-object)
2. ?You and if may be used both as the subject and the object.
You should learn swimming, (you-subject)
You will enjoy it. (you-object)
Besides, it will keep you fit. (it- subject, you -object)
3. After prepositions, we use the objective form of pronouns between ?them and us?, between ?her and me?, for ?him, to ?her?, from ?them, without us.?
4. The verb ?let? requires she - the objective form of the pronoun.
Let me try this problem.
Let me go for a walk.
5. The form, ?It is me? is common in spoken English although the correct form is, ?it is I?.
Who?s there? Ifs me. (spoken English)
Who?s there? It is I. (formal)
I am not sure. It may be her. (spoken English)
I am not sure. It may be she. (formal)
Relative pronouns: ?Who, whose, whom, which and that? are the words most frequently used as relative pronouns.
1. ?Who, whose, whom? are used for persons only. They have the same form whether they refer to singular or a plural noun or a noun of masculine, feminine or common gender.
(a) The shopkeepers who had closed their shops felt safe.
(b) The principal called the parents of those children whose results were poor.
(c) The girl narrated her story about an old lady whom she met on the way.
Sometimes ?whose? may also be used for non-living things.
For example: the car whose headlights were on
2. ?That? is used for non-living things and for animals.
(a) The house which had been lying vacant for a long time has been sold off.
(b) The tiger which had turned a man-eater could not be located.
3. ?That? is used for both persons and things.
(a) This is the man that I have been speaking of.
(b) I have lost the watch that my father had presented me.
· We use ?that? after the words ?all?, ?some?, ?any?, ?none?, ?nothing?, ?only?.
(i) All that glitters is not gold.
(ii) Nothing that I did pleased my father.
· We use ?that? after adjectives in the superlative degree.
(i) Kapil is the best fast bowler that we have produced.
· In a sentence if we have 2 factors, one denoting a person and other a thing, we would naturally prefer to use
(i) Both the car and its driver that now appeared looked shabby
4. What? refers to things only
(a) What cannot be cured must be endured.
(b) We have found what we have been looking for.
5. ?As? is also sometimes used as a relative pronoun. It is used after His -words such and ?same?.
(a) He is such a leader as the country needs today
(b) His problem is the same as yours.
3. ARTICLES and DETERMINERS
In English language there are three articles. They are: ?A?, ?An? and ?The?. These three articles are divided into two parts:
(i) Indefinite Articles - ?a? and ?an?
(ii) Definite Article ?? ?the?
Indefinite Articles ?A? and ?An?
?A? is used before a word which starts from a consonant or vowel but sounds like a consonant. (All the letters of the English
alphabet except ?A?, ?E?, ?I?, ?O?, ?U?). For example:
· A book, a pen, a chair, a one rupee note, etc.
· ?An? is used before a word which starts from vowel or consonant but sounds like vowel.
An apple, an egg, an honest man, etc.
See the following examples:
1. A one eyed man
Here, ?a? is used before ?one? because ?one? sounds like wone or vone which is a consonant.
2. A university
Here, university sounds like yuniversity which is a consonant.
3. Here, M.L.A. sounds like ?am al a? which is a vowel.
Definite Article ?The?
Definite Article: Definite article (the) points out a particular person, animal, thing or place. ?The? is used before a noun beginning with a consonant or a vowel sound.
Definite Article ?The?
You use ?the? when you know that the listener knows or can work out what particular person /thing you are talking about.
1. ?The apple you ate was rotten.?
2. ?Did you lock the car??
?The? is used when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking about.
1. Ashoka was a king. The king was great.
We use ?the? to talk about geographical points on the globe.
The North Pole, the equator, etc.
We also use ?the? before certain nouns when -we know there is only one of a particular thing.
The rain, the sun, the wind, the world, the earth, the White House, etc.
However, if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use ?a/an?,
See the following examples:
1. I could hear the wind. / There?s a cold wind blowing.
2. What are your plans for the future? / She has a promising future ahead of her.
?The? is also used to say that a particular person or thing being mentioned is the best most famous, etc. In this use, ?the? is
usually given strong pronunciation.
1. Harpy?s Bar is the place to go.
2. You don?t mean you met the Tony Blair, do you?
Those words which modify in some manner the nouns width which they are used are called determiners.
See the following examples:
1. I have got a friend in Paris.
2. This is my book.
3. Evans has little knowledge about astronomy.
4. These apples are not rotten.
5. Have you seen my wallet?
Some more examples of determiners:
A, an, the, this, that, these, those, few, little, many much, more, his, her, my mine, what, which, whose, some, such, several,
A verb denotes an action or being or possession.
1. Robert hit the ball hard.
2. I have a beautiful diary.
3. A cow has four legs.
4. Helen is intelligent.
· A verb that requires an object to complete its meaning is called a transitive verb.
The patient needs medicine.
(Medicine is the object and need is necessary to complete the meaning of the patient?s need.)
· A verb that does not require an object to complete its meaning, but has a complete meaning by itself is called an intransitive verb.
The child smiled.
(The verb smiled doesn?t need an object to complete its meaning.)
· Verb like be (is, am, are, was, were, will be, shall be, etc.) appear, seem and look are incomplete verbs. They need complements to complete their meaning.
The teacher is intelligent.
(The word intelligent is needed to complete the meaning of the teacher.)
Chief parts of a verb:
1. The present tense (Ist form)
2. The past tense (IInd form)
3. The past participle (IIIrd form)
For example: 1. Go; 2. Went; 3. Gone
Strong and weak verbs:
1. Weak verbs form the past tense by adding ed or d, or t to the present.
Present Tense Past Tense
2. Strong verbs form the past tense by changing the inside vowel of their present tense.
Present Tense Past Tense
USES OF VERBS
1. Fell: Fell is the past tense form, of fall, It is used in the present tense.
For example: She collided with a cycle and fell clown.
2. Lay: To lay means to put or place something down.
For example: Kindly lay the child in the bed.
3. Rise raise: To rise/raise means to get up or to come up. To raise, means to lift:
i. The sun rises in the east.
ii. We raised our hands in prayer.
The following verbs are normally used in the simple present tense and not in the present continuous tense:
(a) Verbs of senses: Hear, see, smell, taste
(i) Quinine tastes bitter.
(ii) I hear that you have resigned from your job.
(b) Verbs of feelings and emotions: Feel, want, desire, like, dislike, fear, love, hate, care, wish, respect, appreciate
(i) This house belongs to me.
(ii) I want a new pen.
(iii) He hates dishonest people.
(c) Verbs showing possession: Belong, own, possess.
(d) Verbs like seem, appear, cost, consist, contain, resemble
(i) This book contains pictures.
(ii) This cycle costs three thousand rupees.
(e) Verbs of mental states and activity: Agree, disagree, believe, disbelieve, differ, doubt, fixed, forget, imagine, know, mean, recollect, remember, suppose, think, trust, understand, etc.
(i) I doubt he will come.
(ii) I think we should not go.
Note that all the verbs listed above may be described as non-action verbs.
Have: When the verb shows possession or conditions we should not use it in the present continuous tense:
(a) I have a car.
(b) I have a headache.
But we can use have in the present continuous tense in the following cases.
(a) We are throwing a party.
(b) She is having her bath.
See look, hear, listen: See and hear are non-action verbs while look and listen are action verbs. See and hear do not involve any intention. But looking and listening are intentional activities.
(a) I see a man outside,
(b) He is looking at me.
(c) I hear a lot of noise,
(d) Are you listening to me?
An adverb is a word that adds something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
(i) The traveler walked briskly.
(ii) Today I faced a very difficult situation.
Adverbs can be of six kinds:
Types of Adverbs
1. Adverbs of manner (telling how an action is performed)
Walked fast, worked quietly
2. Adverbs of place (telling where an action is performed)
Went downstairs, sat here
3. Adverbs of time (telling when an action is performed)
Came early, played today
4. Adverbs of frequency (telling how often an action is performed)
Visited twice, came usually
5. Adverbs of degree (answering the question: how much or in what degree)
Know completely, totally fun
6. Interrogative adverb (used to ask a question)
When did the train arrive? Why is the train late?
USE OF SOME ADVERBS
1. Fairly, rather:
(a) Both ?fairly? and ?rather?, mean moderately. ?Fairly? is used with favourable adjectives and adverbs (clever, wise, intelligent, etc.) ?rather? is used with the unfavourable ones (foolish, ugly, etc.)
(i) She did fairly well in the interview.
(ii) This shirt is rather expensive.
(iii) He is fairly rich but his uncle is rather poor.
(b) Some words (like hot, cold, fast, slow, high, low) in themselves are neither favourable nor unfavourable. In such cases ?fairly? suggests the idea of approval, ?rather? that of disapproval:
(i) This tea is fairly hot.
(ii) This tea is rather hot.
2. Very, much:
(a) We use ?very? with adjectives or adverbs in the positive degree. It is also used with present participles.
(i) She rail very fast.
(ii) The is very beautiful,
(iii) The young boy was very daring
(iv) She is a very intelligent girl.
(b) ?Much? is used with the comparative degree and with past participles:
(i) Today she is looking much weaker than usual.
(ii) Her dancing was much praised.
(iii) The girl was ?much loved by her parents.
(c) We don?t use ?very? with words like afraid, obliged, alike, we use ?much with them.
(i) I am much obliged to you for your help.
(ii)The two are much alike.
3. Too: The word ?too5 suggests excess of some kind, more than what is desirable, natural, or proper. ?Too? generally has a negative sense and is then followed by an infinitive. It should not be used instead of ?very? or ?much?:
(i) Do not say: It is too hot today.
Say: It is very hot today.
(ii) Do no say: It is too good.
Say: It is very good.
(iii) I am too tired to walk further.
(iv) She talks too much. (This is correct to say.)
(v) He takes things too seriously (This is correct to say.)
4. Enough: ?Enough? means sufficient. It is always used in the positive sense. It is placed after the adjective or adverb but before a noun:
(i) She is old enough to go alone.
(ii) There is enough food for both of us.
(iii) She ran fast enough to overtake me.
5. Quite: With adjectives that do not have a comparative and superlative degree, ?quite? means completely, entirely, fully. It doesn?t mean ?very?:
(i) She is quite right.
(ii) It is quite impossible.
A preposition is a ?word which shows the relation between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in a sentence.
1. The cat is under the ?cable.
2. The cat ran after the mouse.
Preposition of time: A number of prepositions may be used to denote time; on Monday, before night, during the night, till tomorrow, after lunch,
USES OF PREPOSITIONS
1. At, on, in:
(a) ?At? usually denotes a definite point of time but can also be used for indefinite periods: at 3 o?clock, at midnight, at the beginning of the class, at dawn, at night, at Christmas, at Diwali
(b) ?On? is used with day and dates: on Monday on 5th December, on the evening of the 6th March
(c) ?In? is used with parts of the day month, year, season and with the future tense to show the period in which an action will happen: in summer, in winter, in March, in 1984, in a week
2. By: It denotes the latest time at which an action will be over,
(a) The show will be over by 6 p.m.
3. From: It denotes the starting point of an action. It is used with to or ?till?/ ?until?.
(a) The examination will be held from 8 a.m. to 11 a.m.
(b) He was the Chief Minister of Assam from 1984 till 1989.
Preposition of position:
1. At, in:
(a) At? is used with villages, small towns. ?In? is used while speaking of bigger towns, states and countries: at Karol Bagh, in New Delhi, in England, at Ambala, in a factory in a bank, at the end
(b) At? conveys the idea of general neighbourhood, ?in? conveys the idea of something contained:
(i) Please sit at the table when you eat.
(ii) The jam bottle is in the refrigerator.
2. Between, among:
?Between? is used with two persons or things, ?among? is used with more than two:
(i) A small table was lying between the two chairs.
(ii) The hare hid among the bushes.
3. On, upon:
Both ?on and upon? can be used while speaking of things at rest, ?upon? is used with things in motion:
(i) My bag is on/upon the table.
(ii) The cat sprang upon the table.
4. Above, over:
Both ?above and over? mean higher than:
(i) The flags waved over/above our heads.
But ?over? can also mean covering, or vertically above:
(ii) My father put a blanket over me.
(iii) There is a bridge over the stream.
5. Below, under:
Both ?below and under? mean lower than. But we can use either of them. But ?under? means vertically below:
(i) She put the book under her pillow.
(ii) There was a beautiful lake below us in the valley.
?Below? is also used in measurements to suggest the idea of being lower than:
(i) The temperature was 3 degrees below normal.
Preposition of movements and directions:
1. ?To, towards, into, at, for, against?
(a) ?To? has the sense of destination, towards the direction:
(i) He went to the school.
(ii) We went towards the school.
(b) ?Into? denotes movement towards the interior of something:
(i) The dog jumped into the pond.
(ii) She quietly walked into the room.
(c) ?At? has the idea of hitting:
(i) She threw the stone at the dog.
(d) ?For? suggests the beginning of a movement:
(i) The workers left for the factory
(ii) The child leaves for the school early in. the morning.
(e) ?Against? shows pressure or contact:
(i) He threw the bag against me wall.
Prepositions of direction: from, off, out of
(a) ?From is used with the point of departure:
(i) She has already gone from the office.
(b) ?Off? shows separation. ?It? is used in the sense of from the surface of, down from:
(i) He fell off the cycle.
(ii) The ball rolled off the table.
(c) ?Out of is the opposite of ?into?:
(i) The bird flew out of the cage.
Other prepositions showing movement are:
through, over. along, across, round, up and down
Correct use of certain preposition:
1. By, with: ?By? is used to express the agent or does of an action, ?with? relates to the instrument with which the action is done:
(i) The old man was beaten by some strangers with a stick.
(ii) The lawn was mown by the gardener with a mower.
2. After, in: ?After? is used to denote period of time in the past, n is used to show some period of time in the future.
(i) She came back home after an hour.
(ii) We will come back home in an hour.
3. Beside, besides: ?Beside? means by the side of, besides means in addition to:
(i) Please put this bag beside the box.
(ii) Besides giving me books she gave me her notes.
4. Verbs of command, request, invitation, advice don?t take the preposition to after them. Such verbs are:
(i) She advised me to wait.
(ii) I requested the teacher to explain the poem again.
5. On time, in time:
On time- at the arranged time, not before, not after
In time- not late, with a comfortable margin
(i) We reached the station in time for the train.
(ii) The train started on time.
A conjunction is a word used to join words, groups of words or sentences, phrases and clauses.
(i) The sun was shining and a hot wind was blowing.
(ii) Rice and curry is a popular dish.
USES OF CONJUNCTIONS
1. Conjunctions that merely add one statement or fact to another:
And, both-and, as well as, no less than, not only-but also are common conjunctions of this type:
(i) The weather was fine. The sea was calm.
The weather was fine and the sea was calm.
(ii) The door was open. My things were lying scattered.
The door was open and my things were lying scattered.
(i) She is both intelligent and hardworking.
(ii) He gave me both book and notes.
As well as:
(i) He as well as his father is sincere.
(ii) The captain as well as the crew has arrived.
No less than:
(i) He is no less than his brother is guilty.
(ii) I am no less grateful to your father than to you.
Not only-but also:
(i) He was given not only a merit certificate but also a handsome scholarship.
(ii) The train was not only late but also fully packed.
2. Conjunctions that express opposition or contrast between two statements:
But, still, yet, nevertheless, whereas, while, only are conjunctions of this type.
(i) The train was fully packed but we got comfortable seats.
(ii) The earthquake was quite severe but the temple was not damaged.
(i) I was angry; still I did not scold him.
(ii) I was angry yet I did not scold him.
(i) We were very tired nevertheless, we continued the work.
(ii) I am hard up nevertheless, .I will give your some money.
(i) Whereas/while wise men prefer virtue fools prefer beauty.
(ii) Rice needs plenty of water whereas/while cotton needs black soil.
(i) I am all right, only I?m tired.
(ii) I could come, only I?m busy.
3. Conjunctions that express a choice between two alternatives.
Or, otherwise, else, either-or, neither-nor are common conjunctions of this type:
(i) You must apologise, or you will be dismissed.
(ii) You must be bold, or you will not be able to face the world.
(i) Either attend to your lesson or leave the class.
(ii) We can either walk down or take a bus.
(i) He is neither lazy nor careless.
(ii) Kavita neither looks after the house nor takes up a job.
(i) Hurry up, otherwise you will be late for your school.
(ii) Hurry up, else you will miss your school bus.
4. Conjunctions by which one statement or fact is inferred from another. For, so, therefore are common conjunctions of this type:
(i) Let me take leave of you, for I am getting late.
(ii) She will rise in life, for she is sincere.
(i) He didn?t report on time, so he was not selected.
He didn?t report on time, therefore he was not selected.
(ii) We missed the bus, so we took a taxi.
We missed the bus, therefore we took a taxi.
Subordinating conjunctions introducing adverb clauses
Time: When, whenever, before, after, till, since, as soon as, while, as
(i) She has not written to me since she left.
(ii) Please be there as soon as possible.
(iii) The gates were locked after the guests had left.
(iv) He checked the accounts while I took a cup of tea.
(v) I will give him your message whenever I meet him.
(vi) Father asked me to stay at home till he returned.
(vii) I saw him as he was getting off the bus.
(viii)We felt thrilled when our team won the match.
Place: Where, wherever
(i) Wherever he goes, he wins respect.
(ii) She found her bag where she had left in the shop.
Result a consequence: So-that, such-that
(i) He spoke so fast that I couldn?t understand.
(ii) There was such a loud noise that nobody could sleep.
Purpose: So that, that, but
(i) He is wearing a woolen coat so that he does not catch cold.
(ii) We eat that we may live.
(iii) I stayed back home so that my grandfather might not feel lonely.
Condition: if, unless
(i) You will be given a permanent job if your work is satisfactory.
(ii) You will not be allowed to enter unless you have an invitation card.
Comparison: as-as, than
(i) He is as clever as his brother.
(ii) Anu is clever than her sister.
Manner: as, as if
(i) They acted as they had been advised.
(ii) He behaved as if he were angry.
Conjunctions used in pairs: Some conjunctions convey their full sense only when they are used in ?pairs?.
Either-or, neither-nor, although-yet, both-arid, such-as, such that, as-so, so that, no sooner-that, so-as, as-as, scarcely\
(hardly)-when, not. Only -but also
(i) Either you should return the book or pay its price.
(ii) I am neither a fool nor a rouge.
(iii) Although India has rich resources yet it is poor
(iv) The thief was both fined and imprisoned.
(v) He is not such a man as you would like to marry.
(vi) Such was the intensity of her grief that she could not even weep.
(vii) He is not so brave as you think.
(viii) He is as brave as a lion.
(ix) As you sow, so shall you reap.
(x) The speech was so moving that all eyes became wet.
(xi) Scarcely (hardly) had we stepped out when we got drenched.
(xii) The room was not only cold but damp also.
(xiii) No sooner did I begin my homework than the telephone bell rang.
A. A transitive verb has two voices:
1. Active voice 2. Passive voice
1. ACTIVE. VOICE:
When the subject of a verb also performs the action named in the verb, the verb is said to be in the active voice.
(i) Sudha respects the teacher.
What is the action performed? (respecting)
What is the subject of the verb respect? (Sudha)
Who performs the action of respecting? (Sudha)
2. PASSIVE VOICE:
When the subject of a verb receives the action named in the verb, the verb is said to be in the passive voice.
(i) The teacher is respected by Sudha.
What is the action performed? (respecting)
The subject of the verb is respected, (the teacher)
Sudha respects the teacher.
The teacher is respected by Sudha.
(a) The active object the ?teacher? has become the passive subject.
(b) The active subject ?Sudha7 has become the passive object. By using the preposition ?by? before it. However if this subject is not important, we may omit it.
(c) An appropriate form of the verb be ?is? followed by the past participle form the verb respected.
B. The object or the subject may be a long phrase. But when the sentence in the active voice is rewritten in the passive voice, the whole phrase will change its position.
(i) The wind uprooted a large number of trees and electric poles. (Active)
A large number of trees and electric poles were uprooted by the wind. (Passive)
(ii) The parents of all the prize-winning students attended the function. (Active)
The function was attended by the parents of all the prize-winning students. (Passive)
C. When there are two verbs in the active voice then we can form two sentences in passive voice:
We are taught English by ?your uncle.
English is taught to us by your uncle. (Passive)
The first form is preferred.
D. Active verbs followed by prepositions retain them when they changed into passive voice.
(i) She did not care for me.
I was not cared by her.
(ii) They shouted at the naughty boy
The naughty boy was shouted at by them.
E. When interrogative sentences are changed into passive voice; they their interrogative form:
(i) Do you obey your parents?
Are your parents obeyed by you.
(ii) How does she do all this?
How is all this done by her?
F. SIMPLE PRESENT:
(i) Who keeps the account?
By whom are the accounts kept?
Who are the account keeper?
(ii) We use this room on special occasions.
This room is used on special occasions.
Active voice: root form of the verb, sometimes with -s or?es
Passive voice: is / am / are + past participle
G. SIMPLE PAST:
(i) Who organised the function?
Who was the function organised by?
(ii) The driver immediately applied the brakes.
The brakes were immediately applied by the driver
Active voice: the past tense
Passive voice: was / were + past participle
H. SIMPLE FUTURE:
(i) I shall post these letters tomorrow.
These letters will be posted tomorrow.
(ii) When will they hold the examination?
When will the examination be held?
Active voice: Shall / will + root form of the verb
Passive voice: Shall be / will be + past participle
I. PRESENT CONTINUOUS:
(i) Our drama society is staging a ballet.
A ballet is being staged by our drama society.
(ii) Why are they pulling down the old huts?
Why are the old huts being pulled down?
Active voice: is/am/are + ing form of the verb
Passive voice: is/am/are + being + past participle
J. PAST CONTINUOUS:
(i) All of us were cheering our team.
Our team was being cheered by all of us.
(ii) Were the artists rehearsing the play?
Was th play being rehearsed by the artists?
Active voice: was/were + ing form of the verb
Passive voice: was/were + being + past participle
K. FUTURE CONTINUOUS:
Verbs in the future continuous tense cannot be expressed in the passive voice.
L. PRESENT PERFECT:
(i) We have produced a number of books for children.
A number of books have been produced for children.
(ii) Who has used my towel?
My towel has been used by whom?
Active voice: has/have + past participle
Passive voice: has/have + been + past participle
M. PAST PERFECTS
(i) Had you taken all the precautions?
Had all the precaution been taken by you?
(ii) My father had already purchased the tickets.
The tickets had already been purchased by my father,
Active voice: had + past participle
Passive voice: had been + past participle
N. FUTURE PERFECT:
(i) They will count the votes before night.
The votes will have been counted before night.
(ii) Will they have selected the cricket team by next week?
Will the cricket team have been selected by next week?
Active voice: will/shall -4- have + past participle
Passive voice: will/shall + have been + past participle
O. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES:
Verbs in the perfect continuous tenses cannot be expressed in the passive voice.
P. MODAL AUXILIARIES (can, could, may, might, should, would, must, ought to)
(i) May god bless you with health!
May you be blessed with health!
(ii) We ought to preserve our heritage.
Our heritage ought to be preserved.
Active voice: the auxiliaries + root form of the verb
Passive voice: the auxiliaries + be + past participle
(i) Open the door.
Let the door be opened.
The door should be opened.
(ii) Sell this bicycle off.
This bicycle should be sold off.
Active voice: The sentence begins with the root form of the verb.
Passive voice: Let + object + be + past participle
Object + should be + past participle
R. SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH LET:
(i) Let him take the next turn.
Let the next turn be taken by him.
(ii) Let us forget the past.
Let the past be forgotten.
Active voice: Let + infinitive without ?to?
Passive voice: Let + be + past participle
Presenting the words of a speaker is called narration. Narration is of two types:
1. Direct speech
2. Indirect speech
When the actual or exact words of a speaker are presented, it is called direct speech.
1. Morgan said, ?Lawrence lives in London.?
2. Morgan said that Lawrence lived in London.
These two sentences refer to the two ways of reporting the words of a speaker. In sentence 1, the actual or exact words
of the speaker are presented. This speech is called direct speech.
When the substance or meaning of a person?s speech is presented, it is called indirect speech. For example:
1. Morgan said that Lawrence lived in London.
In the sentence given above, the actual or exact words of the speaker are not presented.
The substance or meaning of the speech has been presented. This speech is called indirect speech.
A verb used to express the mood or attitude of a speaker is called a modal.
The moods and attitudes expressed in the sentences given below are:
1. advice, 2. necessity, 3. seeking permission, 4. making a polite request, 5. Giving permission in a formal manner, 6. Giving permission in a friendly, informal manner.
(a) May I use your pen, please?
(b) You can park the car in front of our house.
(c) You may take these books home.
(d) You should regularly go for a morning walk.
(e) They must attend tomorrow?s meeting.
The most commonly used modals are:
And these modals are used to suggest:
4. advice, duty
USES OF MODALS
A. Permission: May. can, could
May, can, could are used to suggest permission, ?Can? is informal ?may? is polite.
(i) Can I use your telephone? (informal)
(ii) May I use your telephone? (formal)
(iii) Could I use your telephone (very polite)
B. Ability: Can, could, be able to
The idea of ability is expressed by ?can? Ability in the past is expressed by ?could? ?Can and could? also suggest opportunity.
(i) Patel could keep wickets,
(ii) Patel was able to keep wickets.
(iii) Patel can keep wickets.
C. Possibility: May might, could
?May? suggests a good possibility
?Might suggests a weak possibility
?Could? expresses a very weak possibility in the future.
(i) I am glad she could come tomorrow.
(ii) She could come tomorrow.
(iii) You may be right.
D. Suggestion, advice, duty: Should, ought to
(i) ?Should? is used to express suggestion or advice.
(ii) ?Ought to is a little stronger than should.
It should suggests that something is the right thing to do.
(i) You should try to reduce your weight.
(ii) Should we start packing the luggage.
(iii) You ought to take care of your old parents.
E. Promise: Will, shall
?Will and ?shall? are used to suggest promise. Normally we use ?shall? with only first person subjects and ?will? with all persons.
(i) We will attend your brother?s marriage.
(ii) You shall get a new bat on your birthday.
(iii) Don?t worry I will keep writing to you.
F. Intention: Will, shall
?Will? and ?shall? in their usage suggest intention or willingness.
(i) I ?shall? ring you up in the evening.
(ii) They ?will? gladly cooperate.
G. Request: Would, won?t, can, could
(i) ?Would? you buy me some woolens, please? (polite request)
(ii) ?Can? I have some tea? (informal request)
(iii) ?Could? you switch on the fan? (uncertain)
H. Necessity, compulsion: Must, have to, had to, have got to, will have to
(i) I am getting late. I ?must? take a taxi. (necessity)
(ii) I ?will have to? go and get some medicine, (necessity)
(iii) You ?must? pay the dues on time. (compulsion)
(iv) I ?have got to? finish this work by evening, (necessity/compulsion)
?Must? suggests the desire of the speaker.
?Have to? suggests an external compulsion:
(i) You must pay the dues on time.
(ii) In the army you have to clean you shoes yourself.
?Needn?t suggests that there is no necessity or compulsion:
(i) He ?needn?t? go to the doctor.
(ii) You ?needn?t? get up so early.
I. Prohibition: Must not, ought not to
(i) Cars ?must not? be parked in front of the gate
(ii) You ?ought not? to make fun of an old man.
J. Wish: May
?May is normally used to express a wish:
(i) May you live long!
(ii) May god bless you with a son!
K. Dare: We use ?dare? mostly in negative sentences and in questions. For example:
(i) I daren?t climb that tall building.
(ii) The child dared not complain.
(iii) Dare you challenge him to a fight? No, I daren?t.
A group of words that forms part of a sentence and has a subject and a finite verb of its own is called a clause. For example:
(i) My neighbour is a man of great wealth.
(ii) My neighbour is a man who owns great wealth.
Clauses have three types:
1. Adjective clause
2. Adverb clause
3. Noun clause
USE OF CLAUSES
1. Adjective clause:
A clause that acts as an adjective in a sentence is called an adjective clause. For example:
(a) The boy wearing a blue shirt is my brother.
(b) The boy who is wearing a blue shirt is my brother.
(c) We need a teacher with two years teaching experience.
(d) We need a teacher who has two years teaching experience.
An adjective clause is usually introduced by the words who, whose, whom, which and that. ?Who? is used for living beings and ?which? for non-living things and animals. ?That? may be used for both. Very occassionally an adjective clause may also be introduced by as, when, where, etc.
(i) I have no respect for those people who don?t keep their promises.
(ii) The facts which the accused put before the magistrate clearly proved his innocence.
(iii) A suitable boy? happens to be one of the best novels that have been recently published.
(iv) Such people who do not concentrate their energies on a single aim hardly succeed in life.
(v) I clearly remember the place where some robbers attacked me.
2. Adverb clause:
A clause that acts as an adverb in a sentence is called an adverb clause. For example:
(a) He emerged a winner because of his steady work.
(b) He emerged a winner because he worked steadily
(c) In case of the train being late, we shall catch a taxi.
(d) In case the train is late, we shall a catch a taxi.
The adverb clause tell the time, place or manner of the action, it may tell the cause, purpose or effect of the action it may compare or contrast this action.
Adverb clauses are usually introduced by the following words:
Time: when, whenever, before, after, till, since, as soon as, while, as
Place: where, wherever
Cause or reason: because, since, as
Condition: as, as if
Comparison: as-as, so-as, than
Purpose: so that, that, but
Concession or contrast: though, although, yet, even if, even though
3. Noun clause: A clause which acts as a noun in a sentence is called a noun clause.
(i) He expected to pass.
(ii) He expected that he would pass.
(iii) His being elected is certain.
(iv) That he will be elected is certain.
A noun clause may usually acts as the subject of a verb, the object or complement of a verb, or the object of a preposition, an infinitive or a particle.
A noun clause is often introduced by that. Why, ?what, how, if or whether, her example:
In grammar, to show the time of an event or action we use ?tense?. Tense is the form of verb which shows the time of an action or state of being.
Kinds of Tense
Tense is divided into three categories.
Any action or event that takes place at present is called the present tense. For example:
(1) He makes an appeal.
(2) She is learning computer.
There are four kinds of present tense.
1. Present Indefinite or Simple Present Tense- This tense is used to express the habitual actions, general truths, planned activities and quotations. It shows an action done in general way in the present time. For example:
(1) The sun rises in the east.
(2) My mother drinks fruit juice daily.
2. Present Continuous Tense- This tense is used to express an action or event taking place. It shows an action going on at the time of speaking. For example:
(1) The teacher is explaining the facts.
(2) The children are enjoying the show.
3. Present Perfect Tense- This tense is used to express the actions just completed, and past actions whose time is not specific. It shows an action started in the past and completed at the time of speaking. For example:
(1) Robin has passed the entrance test.
(2) I have revised the lesson properly.
4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense- This tense shows an action that was started at some time in the past and continuing up in the present time. For example:
(1) I have been living here since ten years.
(2) Jennifer has been waiting for her father since Monday
When a verb indicates a completed action, it is said to be in the past tense. For example:
(1) Maria played chess.
(2) Jenny was laughing
(3) Serena had completed her work.
There are four kinds of past tense.
1. Past Indefinite or Past Tense-This tense is used to express past habits, and completed, actions. It also shows an action done in the past time.
(1) I bought a pencil.
(2) He taught the girls.
2. Past Continuous Tense. This is used to express the continuity of some past actions. It shows an action going on in the past and not completed. For example:
(1) Jack was celebrating his victory.
(2) Daisy was looking at the stars.
3. Past Perfect Tense- This tense is used to express an action completed before a certain moment in the past. It shows an action which had been completed before another action took place. For example:
(1) Harrison had taken his meal before I arrived.
(2) Brad had cooked the food before I reached home.
4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense- This tense shows an action starting before a certain point in the past and continuing up to that time. For example:
(1) Matt had been reading since morning when Edward rang him up.
(2) She had been playing chess since.
In future tense, a verb indicates that an action will take place in future. For example:
(1) I will go to zoo tomorrows
(2) Serena will have eaten the mango before she sleeps.
There are four kinds of future tense.
1. Future Indefinite or Simple Future Tense-This tense is used to express a supposed action and determination. It shows an action to be done in general way in the future time. For example:
1) Liam will know his result soon.
2) George will go home tomorrow.
2. Future Continuous Tense. This is used to indicate the continuity of a supposed action. It shows an action that will go on at some point of time in the future.
(1) Denzel will be reaching to his native place.
(2) Russell shall be making a project at that time.
3. Future Perfect Tense. This tense is used to indicate the completion of a supposed action or an action that starts earlier but still continues. It shows an action to be completed before another action takes place in future time.
(1) Harrison will have bought a bike before he gets a job.
(2) Laurence will have finished her cooking before the maid servant comes.
4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense- This tense shows an action starting before a certain point in the past and continuing up to that time. For example:
(1) Sylvester will have bought a bike before he gets a job.
(2) She will have been studying for four hours..
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