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7th Class English Tenses TENSES

TENSES

Category : 7th Class

The concept of time can be split into:

  1. The Present - What you are currently doing.

             I eat, I am eating

  1. The Past - What you did some time back.

             I ate, I was eating

  1. The Future - What you will do later.

             I will eat, I will be eating

In the English language, tenses play an important role in sentence formation.

The tense of a verb shows the time of an event or action.

There are four types of tenses. Simple, Perfect, Continuous and Present Perfect Continuous and each of these has a present, past and future form.

 

PRESENT TENSES

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

In Simple Present, the action is simply mentioned and there is nothing being said about its completeness.

  • I eat.
  • I sleep.
  • I play

 

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

In Present Continuous, the action is on-going/ still going on and hence continuous.

  • I am eating.
  • I am sleeping.
  • I am playing.

 

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

In Present Perfect, the action is complete or has ended and hence termed Perfect.

  • I have eaten.
  • I have slept.
  • I have played.

 

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

In Present Perfect Continuous, the action has been taking place for some time and is still ongoing.

  • I have been eating.
  • I have been sleeping.
  • I have been playing.

 

PAST TENSES

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

In Simple Past, the action is simply mentioned and understood to have taken place in the past.

  • I ate.
  • I slept.
  • I played.

 

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

In Past Continuous, the action was ongoing till a certain time in the past.

  • I was eating.
  • I was sleeping.
  • I was playing.

 

PAST PERFECT TENSE

Past Perfect is used to express something that happened before another action in the past.

  • I had eaten.
  • I had slept.
  • I had played.

 

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Past Perfect Continuous is used to express something that started in the past and continued until another time in the past.

  • I had been eating.
  • I had been sleeping.
  • I had been playing.

 

FUTURE TENSES

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

Simple Future is used when we plan or make a decision to do something. Nothing is said about the time in the future.

  • I will eat.
  • I will sleep.
  • I will play.

 

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

The future continuous tense is used to express action at a particular moment in the future. However, the action will not have finished at the moment.

  • I will be eating at 9 a.m.
  • I will be sleeping when you arrive.
  • I will be playing at 5 p.m.

 

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Future Perfect expresses action that will occur in the future before another action in the future.

  • I will have eaten before 10 a.m.
  • I will have slept before you arrive.
  • I will have played before 6 p.m.

 

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Future Perfect Continuous is used to talk about an ongoing action before some point in the future.

  • I will have been sleeping for two hours when you arrive.
  • I will have been playing for an hour when it is 5 p.m.

 

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS

In the context of verbs, we use the term inflection to talk about the process of changing a verb form to show tense, mood, number (i.e., singular or plural), and person (i.e. first person, second person, or third person). This section deals with inflecting verbs to show tenses and participles, and is divided into two main sections:

  • Regular verbs
  • Irregular verbs

 

REGULAR VERBS

Many English verbs are regular, which means that they form their different tenses according to an established pattern. Such verbs work like this:


Verb

3rd person singular

3rd person singular

past participle

present participle

present tense

past tense

laugh

he/she laughs

he/she laughed

laughed

laughing

love

he/she loves

he/she loved

loved

loving

boo

he/she boos

he/she booed

booed

booing

 

PRESENT TENSE FORMATION

In the present simple tense, the basic form of a regular verb only changes in the 3rd person singular, as follows:

Most verbs just add -s to the basic form (e.g., take/takes, seem/seems, look/looks).

Verbs that end with a vowel other than e add -es (e.g., go/goes, veto/vetoes, do/does).

Verbs that end with -s, -z, -ch, -sh, and -x add -es

(e.g., kiss/kisses, fizz/fizzes, punch/punches, wash /washes, mix/mixes).

If the verb ends in a consonant plus -y, change the y to an i before adding -es (e.g. hurry/hurries, clarify/ clarifies).

But if the verb ends in a vowel plus -y, just add -s (e.g. play/plays, enjoy/enjoys).

 

PAST TENSE FORMATION

Forming the past simple tense of regular verbs is mostly straightforward, and you use the same form for the first, second, and third persons, singular and plural:

If the basic form of the verb ends in a consonant or a vowel other than e, add the letters -ed to the end (e.g. seem/seemed, laugh/laughed, look/looked).

For verbs that end in -e, add -(/(e.g. love/loved, recede/receded, hope/hoped).

If the verb ends in a consonant plus -y, change they to an; before adding -ed (e.g. hurry/hurried, clarify/clarified).

But if the verb ends in a vowel plus -y, just add -ed (e.g. play/played, enjoy I enjoyed).

 

Verb tenses: adding -ed and -ing

The basic form of a verb is called the infinitive. It normally occurs with the word to as in 'I want to ask you a question.' Verbs may change their spelling according to which tense is being used.

The past tense refers to things that happened in the past. To make the past tense of regular verbs, the ending - ed is added to the infinitive ('I asked her a question'). The present participle refers to things that are still happening. To make the present participle, the ending -ing is added to the infinitive ('I am asking her a question').

Often there's no need to make any other spelling changes when you add -ed and -ing to the infinitive but there are some cases when it's necessary to do so. Here are some rules to help you get it right:

 

Verbs ending with a silent e

If the verb ends with an e that isn't pronounced (as in bake or smile), then you need to drop this final -e before adding -ed and -ing:

verb

past tense

Present participle

bake

baked

baking

smile

smiled

smiling

             Verbs ending in -ee, -ye, and -oe (such as free, dye, and tiptoe) do not drop the final -e when adding -ing:

verb

past tense

present participle

Free

freed

freeing

dye

dyed

dyeing

tiptoe

tiptoed

tiptoeing

 

Very few verbs keep the final -e when adding -ing to distinguish them from similar words. For example, singe becomes singeing rather than singing (which is the present participle of sing).

 

Verbs ending with a vowel plus -1

If the verb ends with a vowel plus-l (as in travel or equal), then you need to double the l before adding-ed and -ing in British English:

verb

past tense

present participle

travel

travelled

travelling

distil

distilled

distilling

equal

Equalled

equalling

 

Verbs ending with a single vowel plus a consonant

If the verb ends with a single vowel plus a consonant, and the stress is at the end of the word (e.g. refer), then you need to double the final consonant before adding -ed and -ing:

verb

past tense

present participle

admit

admitted

admitting

commit

committed

committing

refer

referred

referring

 

If the verb ends with a vowel plus a consonant and the stress is not at the end of the word, you don't need to double the final consonant when adding -ed and -ing:

verb

past tense

present participle

inherit

inherited

inheriting

target

targeted

targeting

visit

visited

visiting

 

If the verb has only one syllable and ends with a single vowel plus a consonant (e.g. stop), then you need to double the final consonant before adding -ed and -ing:

verb

past tense

present participle

stop

stopped

stopping

tap

tapped

tapping

sob

sobbed

sobbing

 

Verbs ending with two vowels plus a consonant

If the verb ends with two vowels plus a consonant, you should generally not double the final consonant:

verb

past tense

present participle

treat

treated

treating

wheel

wheeled

wheeling

pour

poured

pouring

 

Verbs ending in -c

If the verb ends in -c (e.g. panic), you need to add a -k before adding -ed and -ing, and also -er.

verb

past tense

present participle

related noun

picnic

picnicked

picnicking

picnicker

mimic

mimicked

mimicking

mimicker

traffic

trafficked

trafficking

trafficker

 

FORMING PARTICIPLES

             To form the past participle of regular verbs, follow the same rules as for the past simple tense above.

             To make the present participle of regular verbs:

             If the basic form of the verb ends in a consonant or a vowel other than e, add the ending -ing (e.g. laugh/laughing, boot booing).

             If the verb ends in e, drop the e before adding -ing (e.g. love/loving, hope/hoping).

             If the basic form ends in y just add -ing (e.g. hurry/hurrying, clarify/clarifying).

 

IRREGULAR VERBS

             There are many irregular verbs that don't follow the normal rules. Here are the forms of some of the most common irregular verbs:


verb

3rd person singular present tense

3rd person singular past tense

past participle

present participle

be

is

was

been

being

begin

begins

began

begun

beginning

bite

bites

bit

bitten

biting

break

breaks

broke

broken

breaking

buy

buys

bought

bought

buying

choose

chooses

chose

chosen

choosing

come

comes

came

come

coming

dig

digs

dug

dug

digging

do

does

did

done

doing

drink

drinks

drank

drunk

drinking

eat

eats

ate

eaten

eating

fall

falls

fell

fallen

falling

feel

feels

felt

felt

feeling

find

finds

found

found

finding

get

gets

got

got

getting

go

goes

went

gone

going

grow

grows

grew

grown

growing

have

has

had

had

having

hide

hides

hid

hidden

hiding

keep

keeps

kept

kept

keeping

know

knows

knew

known

knowing

lay

lays

laid

laid

laying

lead

leads

led

led

leading

leave

leaves

left

left

leaving

lie

lies

lay

lain

lying

lose

loses

lost

lost

losing

make

makes

made

made

making

meet

meets

met

met

meeting

put

puts

put

put

putting

read

reads

read

read

reading

ride

rides

rode

ridden

riding

ring

rings

rang

rung

ringing

rise

rises

rose

risen

rising

run

runs

ran

run

running

say

says

said

said

saying

see

sees

saw

seen

seeing

sell

sells

sold

sold

selling

set

sets

set

set

setting

sing

sings

sang

sung

singing

sit

sits

sat

sat

sitting

stand

stands

stood

stood

standing

stick

sticks

stuck

stuck

sticking

take

takes

took

taken

taking

teach

teaches

taught

taught

teaching

think

thinks

thought

thought

thinking

wake

wakes

woke

woken

waking

 

Note that sometimes the spelling doesn't change but the pronunciation does (e.g. read). There are many more irregular verbs in English than those listed here.

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