Animal Husbandry

Category : 9th Class

*      Animal Husbandry

 

It is the branch of science which deals with the rearing and management of animals, for commercial purposes. Some of the common animals used for rearing are cow, goat, buffalo, fish, poultry, and bee keeping.

  • Cattle Farming: Cattle farming is done for two purpose, that is, for milk and transportation. Cows are classified as drought breed, dairy breed, and dual purpose breed. Milk producing cows are called dairy breed. There are two high yielding breeds of cows such as indigenous breed and diary breed. Indigenous breed of cows include red shindhi, sahiwal, gir.

Some of the high yielding breeds of buffaloes are Murrah, Mehsana and Surti. The lactation period for these animals are different. For example, for red shindhi it is 321 to 345 days, for sahiwal it is 184 to 354 days, and for Gir it is 230 to 394 days. There are two methods of breeding animals, such as, natural method and artificial methods. In artificial methods semens of desired male bull is injected into the genital tract of female animal, during the deat period and fertilization takes places. It is known as artificial insemination.

Now the cattle feed is also equally important. The animal feed includes two types of substance: Roughage and Concentrates. The roughage largely consists of fibres, silage, hay and legumes, while the concentrates includes the mixtures of substance which are rich in vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates.

The common diseases which are found in catties and buffalo are parasitic disease such as ticks and mites, and infectious disease includes foot and mouth disease, anthrax, hemorrhagic septicemia, black quarter etc.

  • Poultry Farming: Rearing and management of hen for meat and eggs is called poultry farming. There are three types of poultry indigenous, exotic and cross breeds. The Indigenous breeds includes aseel, kadaknath, bursa. The indigenous breeds are hardy and possess natural immunity against some of the common diseases. They are smaller in size and grows very slowly and lay less number of eggs. The other one is exotic breeds which include white leghorn, rhode island red. They are larger in size and lay large number of eggs. They take less time to grow and produce more meat. The third is the cross breeds which includes HH260, IBL80, B77, and IIS82.

Some of the common traits of new variates of poultry are: it should be able to produce large number and large quantity of meats in less time and should be able to adjust in various climatic conditions. It should have law maintenance cost and product should be high nutrients. Some of the common diseases founded in the poultry are caused by virus, such as, bird flu, cholera, aspergillosis etc.

  • Fish Production: The rearing and management of fish on large scale for commercial purposes is called pisciculture. There are two types of fisheries: marine water fisheries and fresh water fisheries. The marine fisheries includes fisheries of ocean and sea. The fresh water fisheries includes river, lakes, ponds, and fields. Our marine fisheries include 7500 km of costal line. The fish which are caught from the sea and oceans are sea fish, flying fish, hilsa, ribbon fish and salmon.

The Inland fisheries include rivers, ponds, lake, etc. The common fish founded in this region are catia, labeo, mugil, etc.

 

*          Bee Keeping

Rearing and management of bee on large scale for honey, wax etc is called apiculture or bee keeping. There are two variates of bee used for this purposes such as indigenous and exotic breeds. The indigenous breeds include apis cerana indica, apis dorsata and apis florae. The exotic breeds includes apis mellifera, and apis adamsoni.

                                    

 

 

common.jpg  

 

       The rust disease in wheat is caused by which one of the following microorganism?

(a) Puccinia

(b) Wachuria

(c) Pyricularis

(d) Smut

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (a)  

 

 

         The lactation period for red shindhi is:

(a) 184 to 354 days

(b) 230 to 394 days

(c) 250 to 410 days

(d) 231 to 394 days

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (d)

 

 

        Who carried out the first experiment of artificial insemination?

(a) John Dove

(b) Spallanzani

(c) Charles martin

(d) Whitalker

(e) None of these

 

Answer: (b)

 

 

summary.jpg

  • The growing of crops to fulfil the needs and requirement of human beings is called sustainable agriculture.
  • There are two types of crops in India, rabi crops and kharif.
  • Plants require two types of nutrients macronutrients and micronutrients.
  • Manures are the substance which are formed by decomposition of plants and animals wastes.
  • Weeds are the unwanted plants which grow along with the crop plants.
  • Weedicides are the chemicals which kills the weeds without damaging the crops..



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